WAEC Syllabus For Geography 2022/2023 PDF | Free Download Syllabus

WAEC Syllabus For Geography 2022/2023 PDF Download. As previously said, many students are preparing for Geography 2021 without the WAEC syllabus.  I use this medium to inform you that your preparation is not effective Without WAEC geography 2021 syllabus.

WAEC Syllabus

This is an outline of the main points of a discourse, the subjects, the contents of WAEC Geography 2022/2023 curriculum Given out by The West African Examination council for all candidates sitting for the 2021 Waec examination.

Without the WAEC Syllabus for Geography, Your preparation is yet to kick off.

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WAEC Syllabus For Geography 2022/2023 is  very essential due to many searches we have been receiving from several WAEC aspirants all over west Africa as well as on various social media outlets regarding the WAEC Syllabus For Geography 2022/2023 for the forthcoming 2022/2023 WAEC May/June Examinations.

WAEC Geography Syllabus For 2021

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The Geography syllabus is designed to evaluate candidates’ knowledge of the features of the earth’s crust (internal and external), the spatial spread of the physical and human features, the interactions that exist between man and these spatial features, the changes that occur over space as well as the effects of those changes on man with a view to maintaining sustainability in man’s ecosystem.

This examination syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than three hours of teaching per week will be allocated to the subject.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The examination will test the candidates’ ability to

(i) explain the concepts of differential character and the spatial relationships of the surface features of the earth;

(ii) explain the concepts of man- environment relations (i.e. to analyse the life of man within his physical and cultural environments and to explain their interactions);

(iii) demonstrate a basic knowledge of the nature and functioning of physical and human environments, particularly an understanding of their inter-relationships and the resulting issues;

(iv) organize and formulate principles according to acquired geographical concepts and then apply these principles to interpret and analyze spatial problems in the immediate and wider environments;

(v) demonstrate skills and techniques for accurate, orderly and objective geographical investigations to be carried out both in the classrooms and in the immediate environment;

(vi) communicate geographical ideas effectively through reports, graphs, charts, sketches, diagrams and maps;

(vii) explain the cultural, social and economic circumstances of people in their immediate environments and those of other countries within the sub-region.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: will consist of fifty objective questions to be taken in 1 hour for 50 marks. The questions will be drawn from topics in the syllabus that are common to all the member countries. Candidates will be required to attempt all the questions.

PAPER 2: will contain nine essay-type questions out of which candidates will be required to answer four in 2 hours for 80 marks.

It will be made up of two sections; Sections A and B for candidates in Nigeria and three sections;

Sections A, B and C for candidates in Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.

Candidates in African nation are going to be needed to aim four queries altogether, selecting 2 queries from every of Sections A and B. Candidates in Gold Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone|African country|African nation}|African country|African nation} and therefore the African country are going to be needed to aim four queries altogether, selecting a minimum of one question from every of Sections A, B and C.

The queries are going to be distributed within the sections as follows: Section A: Economic and Human Geograp

This will contains 3 essay-type queries on Economic and Human earth science. Candidates in African nation are going to be needed to aim any 2 of them whereas candidates in Gold Coast, Liberia, African nation and therefore the African country ar to aim a minimum of one in every of the queries.

Section B: Regional earth science of Candidate’s Home Country

There will be a collection of 3 essay-type queries on Regional earth science on every of Gold Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, African nation and therefore the African country. Candidates in African nation are going to be needed to answer 2 of the queries on their country whereas those within the different countries can answer a minimum of one out of the sets for his or her countries.

Section C:

Regional earth science of continent

There will be 3 essay-type queries drawn from continent for candidates in Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, African country and therefore the African country out of that candidates ar expected to answer a minimum of one.

PAPER 3:

Element of sensible and geography can contains eight essay-type queries out of that candidates ar to answer four in one hour fifty minutes for seventy marks. Question 1, on map reading and interpretation, are going to be mandatory for all candidates {and can|and can} carry twenty five marks whereas the opposite queries will carry fifteen marks every.

Candidates ar suggested to not pay quite thirty five minutes on Question one. Candidates are going to be expected to bring graduated rulers (both metric and imperial), a whole mathematical set, a chunk of string and an easy non-programmable calculator to be used throughout the writing of the paper.

DETAILED program

Any topic within the program that’s marked with one asterisk (*) are going to be for candidates in Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, African country and therefore the African country. Topics that ar marked with 2 asterisks (**) are going to be for candidates in African nation solely. The topics while not asterisk ar for all member countries.

ELEMENTS OF sensible AND geography

Map work

Maps: which means, sorts and uses.

Map reading and interpretation supported contoured survey maps of components of West Africa: scale, measure of distances, direction and bearing, map reduction and enlargement, identification of physical features such as spurs, valleys, etc. and cultural features such as city walls, settlements, communication routes, etc.; measurement of gradients, drawing of cross profiles, inter-visibility, description and explanation of drainage characteristics and pattern; patterns of communication, settlement and land use.

Principles of elementary surveying

Definitions of terms, instruments, chain and prismatic compass, plotting of traverse, avoiding obstacles in the field

Geographic Information System 

GIS: Basic concepts, components (hardware, software, data, procedures and experts); sources of data (land surveying, remote sensing, map digitizing, map scanning, field investigation and tabular data etc); uses (defence, agriculture, urban development, mapping, surveying, transportation, census etc), problems (power, personnel, capital etc).

Statistical maps and diagrams

Graphical representation of statistical data: Bar graphs, Line graphs, flow charts, dot maps, proportional circles, density maps, isopleth maps

Elements of Physical Geography

The earth as a planet in relation to the sun, latitude and distance, longitude and time, earth’s rotation and revolution and their effects, structure of the earth (internal and external).

Hydrosphere

Ocean basins, salinity, ocean current ( causes, types and their effects on the temperature of adjacent coastlands), lakes, rivers, lagoons, water as an environmental resource.

(i) Rocks

Types, characteristics, formation and uses

(ii) Tectonic processes

Vulcanicity, earthquake, landforms: Mountains, plains, karsts and coastal landforms (formation, characteristics and importance

(iii) Denudational processes

Agencies modifying landforms such as weathering, mass movement, running water, underground water, wind and waves

(iv) Weather and climate

Simple weather study based on local observation, description of the Stevenson’s screen and uses of basic weather instruments e.g. rain gauge, thermometer, barometer, wind vane etc

(v) Climate (a) Elements (b) Classification (c ) Climate change

Rainfall, sunshine, air pressure, wind, humidity, temperature and cloud. Factors affecting climatic elements e.g. altitude, latitude, ocean currents, land and sea breezes, continentality, aspect. Interpretation of climatic charts and data

Major types of climate (Hot climate – Equatorial, Tropical Continental, Desert; Temperate climate – warm and cool). Classification of climate based on Greek and Koppen. Meaning, causes, effects and remedies (vi) Vegetation

Major types (Tropical Rainforest, cool/warm temperate woodland, Tropical Grassland); characteristics, distribution, factors affecting their distribution, plant communities. Vegetation as an environmental resource. Conservation of vegetation resources

(vii)Soil

Definition, local types and characteristics. Factors and processes of soil formation, soil profile, importance to man and the effects of human activities on soil. Soil erosion and conservation

(vii)The environment

(a) Environmental resources

(b) Environmental problems/ hazards

(c) Environmental conservation

Meaning, classification ( renewable and non renewable) types ( vegetation, water, mineral, atmospheric, etc ) and the importance of each. Types (soil erosion, drought, desert encroachment, flooding and pollution), causes, effects and prevention of each.

Meaning, importance, methods, problems and solutions

ECONOMIC AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

(i) World Population (ii) Settlement (iii) Transportation (iv) Industry (v) Trade (vi) Tourism

Factors and patterns of growth, distribution and movement, growth rate problems.

Types (rural and urban); patterns and factors affecting location; growth and size; functions of rural and urban settlements; interaction patterns( urban-rural, rural-urban, urban-urban, rural-rural); migration.

Modes (roads, railways, water, air, pipeline, cables, ropeways etc.) Transportation and economic development (movement of people and commodities, national and international trade, diffusion of ideas and technology, national integration); problems of transportation and their solutions.

Classification (primary, secondary and tertiary); types (heavy and light industry); factors of industrial location; contributions to development; problems/solutions.

Meaning, types (national and international), reasons for trade, importance. Meaning, centres, reasons (leisure, recreation, education etc ); importance, problems and solutions.

ASPECTS OF REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY PECULIAR TO MEMBER COUNTRIES

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF NIGERIA

(a) Nigeria on broad outline

(b) Physical setting (c) Population (d) Resources (e) Agriculture (f) Transportation (g) Communication

(h) Industry (i) Trade (j) Tourism

(k) Issues on development and environmental concerns

(l) ECOWAS

(m) Geo-political issues

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, population movement, population data ( sources and problems/solutions)

Mineral (petroleum, gas, coal, tin/columbite, iron ore, limestone)- distribution, methods of extraction, problems and solutions)

Power (Petroleum, gas, coal HEP, solar energy)

Water (rivers, lakes, dams, sea, underground water)

Vegetation (trees, food and cash crops; timber,etc)- forest, savanna, biosphere.

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops, importance, problems and solutions.

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, problems and solutions, influence of transportation on human activities.

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages, importance, problems and solutions.

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location, importance, problems and solutions.

Meaning, types (national and international), stock exchange, capital market, forex, major commercial areas, importance of commercial activities.

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problems and solutions.

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation: Rural and regional development, resource management and conservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil, noise; waste disposal, etc.

Meaning, member countries, purposes/mandate, advantages/benefits, disadvantages, problems and solutions.

Geo-political issues-Land reclamation

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF GHANA

(a) Ghana on broad outline (b) Physical setting (c) Population (d) Settlement

(e) Primary economic activities

(i) Agriculture (ii) Fishing (iii) Lumbering (iv) Mining

(f) Manufacturing

(g) Trade and commerce

(h) Tourism

(i) Energy and power (i) Issues on development and environmental concerns

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

Physical environment (geology, relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soils).

Size, growth, distribution and density, age/sex structure: fertility, morbidity and mortality, migration.

Origin, types (rural and urban), characteristics, hierarchy, land use, urbanization processes, problems and solutions.

Subsistence (intensive and extensive) commercial (vegetable, livestock, dairying, commercial grain), plantation, problems and solutions.

Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore), methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, importance, problems and solutions.

Sources of timber, methods of exploitation, types of species

(for internal use and for export), problems and solutions, conservation.

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction, importance, problems and solutions.

Types of manufacturing industries, distribution, factors influencing location of industries, problems of industrialization.

Services, transport and communication, recreation and tourism, administration.

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problems and solutions.

Water (Akosombo and Kpong Hydro-electric Power projects – benefits and side effects), fuel wood and charcoal, petroleum and natural gas (Saltpond), solar, wave and wind energies (Donkokrom and Kokrobite), Biogas e.g. cow dung.

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation: Rural and regional development, resource management and conservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil, noise; waste disposal etc.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF SIERRA LEONE

(a) Sierra Leone on broad outline (b) Primary economic activities

(i)Agriculture (ii) Fishing (iii) Lumbering (iv) Mining

(c) Manufacturing

(d) Transport and communication

(e ) Trade

(f) Population

(g) Tourism

Size and location, physical environment, people and settlements.

Meaning of agriculture, Subsistence (intensive and extensive) commercial (vegetable, livestock, dairying, commercial grain production), plantation, problems and solutions.

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore), methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, importance, problems and solutions.

Meaning of lumbering, Sources of timber, methods of exploitation, types of species (for internal use and for export), problems and solutions, conservation

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction, problems and solutions.

Location of industry, types of industries, problems of manufacturing industry, Energy and Power, water, fuelwood and charcoal, biogas (e.g. cow-dung), hydro-electric power projects e.g. Dodo, Guma, Bumbuna.

Road, rail, water, air, the roles of transport and communication to economic development,( internal and external trade, diffusion of ideas and technology), problems of transport and communication, solutions.

Major commodities of trade (agricultural, manufactured goods, minerals, etc.), patterns of trade (internal and external), problems of trade.

Size, growth, distribution and migration.

Meaning, development of tourism, problems of tourism & solutions, socio-economic effects of tourism. Main tourism areas, factors responsible for its development, economic importance.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF LIBERIA

(a) Liberia on broad outline (b) Physical setting (c) Population (d) Resources (e) Agriculture

(f) Transportation (g) Communication (h) Industry (i) Trade (j) Tourism (k) Fishing (l) Mining

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soil.

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, population movement, population data ( sources, problems & solutions)

Mineral, power, water and vegetation resources, importance of resources to development.

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops, importance, problems and solutions.

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, problems and solutions, influence of transportation on human activities.

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages, importance, problems & solutions.

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location, importance, problems and solutions, importance.

Meaning, types ( national and international), forex, major

commercial areas, importance of commercial activities.

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problems and solutions.

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore), methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, importance, problems and solutions.

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction, problems and solutions

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF SENEGAMBIA

(a) Senegambia on broad outline (b) Physical setting (c) Population (d) Resources (e) Agriculture

(f) Transportation (g) Communication (h) Industry (i) Mining (j) Fishing

(k) Issues on development and environmental concerns

(l) Trade (m) Tourism

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soil.

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, population movement, population data ( sources, problems &solutions)

Mineral, power, water and vegetation resources, importance of resources to development.

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops, importance, problems and solutions.

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, influence of transportation on human activities, problems and solutions.

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages, importance, problems and solutions.

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location, importance, problems and solutions.

Types, distribution, methods of extraction, problems and solutions

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore), methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, problems and solutions.

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation: Rural and regional development, resource management and conservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil, noise, waste disposal etc.

Meaning, types (national and international), forex, major commercial areas, importance of commercial activities, problems and solutions.

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problems and solutions

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA

(a) Africa on broad outline

(b) Selected topics (i) Irrigation agriculture (ii) Plantation agriculture (iii) Oil production

(iv) Lumbering (v) Gold Mining (vi) Copper mining (vii) Population (viii) ECOWAS

FIELD WORK

Location, size, position, political divisions and associated islands, physical features and their economic importance (relief, drainage, climate and vegetation), distribution of minerals.

Irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin and the Niger Basin.

Plantation agriculture in West and East Africa.

Oil production in Nigeria, Ghana and Libya.

Lumbering in Equatorial Africa (with particular reference to

Cote d’Ivoire and Zaire).

Gold mining in South Africa.

Copper mining in Zambia and Zaire

Population distribution in West Africa.

Meaning, member countries, purposes/mandate, advantages/benefits, disadvantages, problems and solutions

Fieldwork on any one of the following topics should be based on local geography of candidate’s home country. (This aspect of the syllabus should be examined by schools as part of the continuous assessment and should account for 25% of the total mark allotted to continuous assessment).

(i) Land use (rural or urban): rural – crop farming (e.g. rice, cocoa, etc. ) urban crop farming mining (e.g. coal, tin, petroleum etc.), fishing. urban – commercial activities, ports, factories, recreational etc. (ii) Market survey – rural or urban. (iii) Traffic flow – rural or urban. (iv) Patterns of journey to work – rural or urban. (v) Rate of erosion in the locality, etc.

Above is the WAEC Syllabus For Geography for 2019/2021.

When WAEC draws close, its more about your personal interest and input than what your school is currently teaching you. However, have it in mind that whatever your teacher teaches in school is the first knowledge you concerning any subjects, you are supposed to build more and more on that.

When WAEC draws close, its more about your personal interest and input than what your school is currently teaching you. However, have it in mind that whatever your teacher teaches in school is the first knowledge you concerning any subjects, you are supposed to build more and more on that.

Undoubtedly, there is need to start preparing for Waec Geography without the WAEC Exam syllabus topic by topic. In the nearest, we shall deal with this subjects and topics one after the other however, do not underestimate the power of your personal interest and input.

At this juncture, We have been able to give you all you need in this topic “WAEC Syllabus For Geography| free Download WAEC EXAM Syllabus” feel free to share the article with your friends and use the comment box below to drop your comment if any.

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