WAEC Syllabus For Integrated Science Syllabus 2021/2022 PDF | Free Download WAEC Syllabus

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This is an outline of the main points of a discourse, the subjects, the contents of WAEC Integrated Science Syllabus  2021/2022 curriculum Given out by The West African Examination council for all candidates sitting for the 2021 Waec examination.

WAEC Syllabus

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WAEC Syllabus For Integrated Science Syllabus 2021/2022

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  1. Introduction/preamble

This syllabus was evolved from the teaching syllabus for the Senior High School Integrated

Science issued by the Ghana Education Service in September, 2010.

Integrated Science seeks to equip the individual with the integrated body of scientific knowledge And

raise the level of scientific literacy of the individuals with comprehensive scientific skills that

enable them to function in the present technological era. Education in science also

providesopportunity for the development of positive attitudes and values.


This syllabus seeks to among other things, enable students to:

(1) acquire the skill to solve basic problems within their immediate environment through

analysis and experimentation;

(2) keep a proper balance of the diversity of the living and non-living things based on their

interconnectedness and repeated patterns of change;

(3) adopt sustainable habits for managing the natural environment for humankind and


(4) use appliances and gadgets effectively with clear understanding of their basic operations

and underlying principles.

(5) explore, conserve and optimise the use of energy as an important resource for the living


(6) adopt a scientific way of life based on pragmatic observation and investigation of


(7) search for solutions to problems of life recognizing the interaction of science, technology

and other disciplines.


It is presumed that candidates taking the examination must have:

(1) carried out activities relating to rearing of at least one of the following groups of animals:

(i) chickens/ducks/turkeys

(ii) goats/sheep/cattle

(iii) guinea pigs, rabbits

(2) paid visits to well established farms, and institutions related to agriculture,

research ormanufacturing to observe scientific work and application of science;

(3) kept practical notebooks on records of individual laboratory and field activities performed.


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a

composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be

answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2: Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answer four

questions within 1 hour 30 minutes for 20 marks each.

PAPER 3: Will consist of four questions on test of practical work. Candidates will be required

to answer all the questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.


Questions will be asked on the topics set out in the column headed “CONTENTS”. The

“NOTES” are intended to indicate the scope of the questions but they are not to be as an

exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.

NOTE: The S.I units will be used for all calculations. However multiples or submultiples

of the units may also be used.


  2. Introduction to Integrated Science

1.1 Concept of Integrated Science

1.2 The scientific


1.3 Safety precautions

in the laboratory

Explanation of Science as an interrelated

body of knowledge. Carriers in science

and technology.

Identification of the problem.

Hypothesis formulation.

Experimentation. Data collection.

Analysis and conclusion.

Safety measures taken in the laboratory

and reasons for them.

  1. Measurement

2.1 Basic quantities, derived

quantities and their units.

2.2 Measuring instruments

2.3 Measurement of density and

Relative density

  1. Diversity of living and non-living things

3.1 Characteristics of living things

3.2 Classification schemes of living

and non-living things.

Basic quantities and units of scientific

measurement: Length (m), Mass

(kg),Time (s), Temperature (K), Current

(A), Light intensity (cd), Amount of

substance (mol).Derived quantities and

their units: Volume (m3), Density (kgm3),

Velocity(ms-1), Force (N), Work and

Energy (J), Quantity of electricity (C),

Electric resistance (&!), Potential

difference (V), Power (W).

Identification and use of measuring

instruments such as ruler, balances, stop

watch, thermometer, measuring cylinder,

callipers, hydrometer, pipette and burette

to measure in various units. Necessity

for measurement

Sources of error

Experiments to determine the density of

equal volumes of water and salt solution.

Comparison of densities of water and

salt solution. Simple experiments of

density of regular and irregular objects.

Differences between living and nonliving things

based on the life processes:

movement, nutrition, growth,

respiration, excretion, reproduction,

irritability should be considered.

Detailed treatment of the life processes

not required.

Explanation of biodiversity

Importance of classification.

Contribution of Aristotle, Linnaeus, and

Mendeleev. Treatment to include the

following levels or ranks: Living thingskingdom,

division/ phylum, class, order,

family, genus and species.

  1. Matter

4.1 Particulate nature of matter

4.2 Elements, compound and mixtures

4.3 Ionic and covalent compounds

4.4 Atomic number, mass number,

isotopes and relative atomic mass

of given elements

4.5 Mole, molar mass and formula


4.6 Preparation of solutions

  1. Cells

5.1 Plant and animal cells

5.2 Types of plant and animal cells

(Specialised cells)

Elements- metals and non metals(1stto 20th elements in

the periodic table).

Atoms, molecules, ions, atomic structure.

Differences between elements,

compounds and mixtures.

Ionic and covalent bond formation.

Characteristic properties of ionic and

covalent compounds.

IUPAC names of common compounds.

Relative atomic masses should be

explained using the periodic table.

Carbon-12 isotope should be mentioned

as reference scale.

The mole as unit of the physical

quantity; amount of substance. Mention

should be made of Avogadro’s number.

Calculation of formula mass and molar

mass using relative atomic masses.

Calculation of amount of substance in

moles given its mass.

Preparation of standard solution of

NaOH, HCl, NaCl and sugar. Dilution of

standard solution.

Structure and function of plant and

animal cells. Drawing and labelling required.

Red blood cell, nerve cell, leaf

epidermal cell, sperm cell, leaf palisade

cells, lymphocyte and phagocyte.

Functions of cell organelles required.

  1. Rocks

6.1 Types, formation and

characteristics of rocks.

6.2 Weathering of rocks

  1. Acids, bases, and salts

7.1 Simple definition

of acids, bases, salts

7.2 Physical and

chemical properties of acids, bases and salts

7.3 Examples of chemical substances classified as acids,

bases or salts

7.4 Methods of preparation of salts

7.5 Acid-base indicators

7.6 Determination of pH of a given solutions.

  1. Soil conservation

8.1 Principles of soil

and water conservation

Formation of igneous, sedimentary and

metamorphic rocks and their


Physical, biological and chemical

weathering of rocks. Explanation of the

effect of hydration, hydrolysis,

carbonation and oxidation on rocks is


Definition of acids and bases in terms of

Proton transfer (Bronsted- Lowry


Properties and uses of acids, bases and


Description of laboratory preparation of

hydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia

gases. Test for hydrogen, carbon dioxide

and ammonia gases.

Simple chemical tests to classify

chemical substances as acids, bases, or


Preparation of salts using the following

methods: neutralization, precipitation,

acid + salt, and acid + metal.

Description of the colours developed by

phenolphthalein, litmus and methyl

orange in dilute acids and dilute bases.

The nature and use of the universal

indicator and pH metre. Determination

of soil pH is required.

Explanation of the concept of soil

conservation. Description of activities to

conserve soil water and maintain soil

fertility; irrigation, mulching, addition of

organic matter or crop rotation.

Macro (major) nutrients; nitrogen (N),

8.2 Classification of soil nutrients

8.3 Functions and deficiency

symptoms of nutrients

8.4 Maintenance of soil fertility

8.5 Organic and inorganic fertilizers

8.6 Depletion of soil resources

  1. Water

9.1 Physical and chemical properties

of water

9.2 Hardness and softness of water.

potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium

(Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S).

Micro (minor) nutrients: boron(B),

zinc(Zn) molybdenum(Mo),

manganese(Mn), copper(Cu),

chlorine(Cl), iron(Fe).

Description of the deficiency symptoms

of the following nutrients in plants:

nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus,

mangenese and iron.

Application of organic and inorganic

manures/ fertilizers, crop rotation, cover

cropping, liming, and green manuring.

Identification and classification of

organic and inorganic fertilizers.

Methods of applying fertilizers.

Factors which lead to the depletion of

soil resources: erosion, overgrazing,

poor farming methods, dumping of nonbiodegradable

waste on land, improper

irrigation and drainage practices, surface

mining and quarrying, deforestation, and

excessive use of fertilizer.

Experiments to determine/ demonstrate:

(i) boiling point of water.

(ii) the solvent action of water on a

variety of substances.

(iii) presence of dissolved substances

(iv) polar nature of water.

Uses of water.

Advantages and disadvantages of hard

and soft water. Causes of hardness of

water (Ca++, Mg++, Fe++ ions).

Softening hard water (addition of

washing soda, ion exchange, boiling and


Steps involved in the treatment of water

9.3 Treatment of water for public


  1. Metals and non-metals

10.1 Classification of materials

10.2 Uses of metals, semi-metals and


10.3 Alloys

  1. Exploitation of minerals
  2. Rusting

12.1 Process of rusting

12.2 Prevention of rusting

for public consumption.

Classification of materials into metals,

semi-metals (metalloids), and nonmetals.

Physical properties of metals, semimetals

and non-metals under

conductivity, luster, malleability,

ductility, sonority, density, melting point

and tensile strength.

Uses of the following elements: Al, Cu,

Fe, Au, C, O2, N2. Application of semimetals.

Examples of alloys and their constituent

elements (steel, bronze, brass).Uses of

alloys. Advantages of alloys in

manufacture of certain household items.

Exploitation of the following minerals in

Ghana: Bauxite, diamond, gold, crude

oil and kaolin.

Negative impact of exploitation of

minerals mentioned and how to

minimize the effect.

Conditions necessary for rusting.

Experiments to show that air and water

are necessary for rusting. Experiments to

show that salt, dilute acid, dilute base

and heat affect the rate of rusting in iron.

Methods of preventing rusting: oiling/

greasing, painting, galvanizing, tincoating,

electroplating, cathode

protection and keeping the metal dry.

Effectiveness of the various methods of

preventing rusting. Items in the home

that undergo rusting.

Hydrocarbons (first four members in

  1. Organic and inorganic compounds

13.1 Classification of chemicals as organic

and inorganic

13.2 Neutralization and esterterification

13.3 Petrochemicals

  2. Air movement

1.1 Land and sea breeze

1.2 Types of air masses and their


1.3 Effect of moving air masses

each group), alkanols (methanol,

ethanol, propanol), alkanoic acids (first

two members), alkanoates (first two

members), fats and oils. Functional

groups, properties and uses of organic


Differences between organic and

inorganic compounds.

Importance of organic chemistry in


Differences between neutralization and

esterification. Equations representing

neutralization and esterification


Sources, application and effects of

petrochemicals on the environment.

The refinery of crude oil. Uses of

petrochemical such as plastics,

pharmaceuticals and


Explanation of formation of land and sea

breezes. Demonstration of convectional

currents using smoke-box and heated

water with crystals of KMnO4.

Trade winds: Easterlies and Westerlies.

Description of the direction of

movement of major air masses on the

earth’s surface.

Differences between air masses and


Effect of moving air masses: spread of

pollutants and effect on climate.

Precautions against effects of storms.

Use of the future’s wheel to trace effects

of spread of pollutants by air masses


Tornados, hurricanes, typhoons should

be mentioned.

  1. Nitrogen cycle

2.1 Importance

  1. Hydrological cycle

3.1 Distribution of earth’s water

3.2 Hydrological cycle

3.3 Sources of water contamination

3.4 Effects of water contamination

3.5 Water conservation methods

  1. Life cycles of pests and parasites

4.1 Types of pests and parasites

4.2 Life cycles of some pests and

parasites of human, plants and farm


Drawing and description of the nitrogen


Importance of the nitrogen cycle to

plants and animals.

Location of earth’s water (groundwater

and surface water) and how much of it is

available for human use. Percentage

distribution of water on the earth’s

surface to be mentioned.

Processes involved in the hydrological

cycle using appropriate diagrams.

Relevance of hydrological cycle to

plants and animals.

Main sources of water contamination:

domestic waste, trade waste, industrial

waste, radioactive waste, and ‘special’

waste such as waste from hospital.

Water-washed, water-based and insectbased

carrier diseases

Household water treatment, waste water

treatment, safe water storage, modern

and traditional rainwater harvesting


Distinguish between pests and parasites.

Common pests of humans and farm

animals (cockroach, housefly, tsetsefly,

and mosquito) common endoparasites,

tapeworm, liver fluke and round worm),

common ectoparasites (tick, bed bug

louse, flea, mite). Common pests and

parasites of plants (rice and maize

weevils, mistletoe, dodder and cassytha

beetle and stem borers.

Life cycles of the following: an

endoparasite (tape worm, and guinea

worm), pest of humans [Anopheles

mosquito] malaria parasite

  1. Crop production

5.1 General principles of crop


5.2 Production of crops

  1. General principles of farm animal


6.1 Main activities involved in farm

animal production

6.2 Ruminant production

6.3 Production of non-ruminant

(Plasmodium), a crop pest (weevil).

Control methods of the pests and

parasites are required.

Selection of appropriate varieties, site

selection and land preparation, methods

of propagation and planting methods,

cultural practices, pest and disease

control, harvesting, processing, storage

and marketing.

Application of all crop production

mentioned in 5.1 to produce a crop,

harvest, generate new planting materials,

keep records and market. Precautions

against post harvest losses. Production

should be limited to the following crops:

vegetables (okro/lettuce/carrot); cereals

(maize/millet); legumes

(cowpea/groundnut); root crop

(cassava); stem tuber (yam).

Selection of suitable breeds, choice of

management system, breeding systems

and care of the young, management

practices including animal health care

and feeding, finishing, processing and

marketing of produce.

Types of breeds and their characteristics,

management practices, breeding

systems, common pests and diseases and

marketing of products. Production

should be limited to cattle, goats and sheep.

Main activities outlined in 6.1 to

produce a non-ruminant farm animal.

Production limited to poultry, pigs and rabbits.

  2. Skeletal system

1.1 The mammalian skeleton

  1. Reproduction and growth in plants

2.1 Structure of flowers

2.2 Pollination and fertilization

2.3 Fruits

2.4 Seeds

2.5 Seeds and fruits dispersal

2.6 Seed germination

Major parts and functions of the

mammalian skeleton.

Axial skeleton: skull and vertebral column.

Appendicular skeleton: limbs and the limb girdles.

Types of joints.

Detailed treatment of the individual

bones not required.

Parts of a flower and variation in flower

structure. Examination of complete

flower and half flower with free parts.

Bi-sexual flower ( Flamboyant or Pride

of Barbados or Hibiscus sp.).

Uni-sexual flower with free parts ( water

melon, gourd and pawpaw).

Drawing and labelling of complete and

half flower required.

Processes of pollination and fertilization.

Adaptations of flowers for pollination

required. Formation of fruits and seeds.

Classification of fruits into dry fruits and

fleshy or succulent fruits.

Seed structure: endospermous

(monocotyledon) and nonendospermous

(dicotyledon)seeds. Functions of parts of


Structure of seeds/ fruits and how they

are adapted to their mode of dispersal.

Agents of dispersal. Explosive

mechanism in fruits of Balsam and Pride

of Barbados. Advantages and

disadvantages of seed and fruit dispersal.

The process and conditions for


Types of germination: hypogeal and

2.7 Vegetative (Asexual) reproduction in


  1. Respiratory system

3.1 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration

3.2 Structure and functions of the

respiratory system in mammals

3.3 Inhalation and exhalation

3.4 Problems and disorders of the respiratory system

3.5 Exchange of respiratory gases in plants.

  1. Food and nutrition

4.1 Classes of food

and food substances

4.2 Malnutrition epigeal.

Formation of new plants from corms,

bulbs, setts, rhizomes, cuttings, stolons,

runners. Distinction between budding

and grafting. Importance of the methods

of vegetative propagation.

Explanation of respiration and how

energy is released from food substances

for living organisms. Importance of

respiration to living organisms.

Distinction between aerobic and

anaerobic respiration.

Identification of the respiratory organs

of the respiratory system. Functions of

the trachea, lungs, ribs, intercostal

muscles and diaphragm.

Mechanisms of inhalation and exhalation.

Lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis,

whooping cough and pneumonia.

Prevention and control of these

problems and disorders.

Description of how respiratory gases

[oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide]


taken in and out of plants. Importance of

cell (tissue) respiration. Glycolysis and

Kreb’s cycle not required.

Classes of food and food substance and

their importance: carbohydrates,

proteins, lipids, vitamins, mineral salts

and water. Importance of balanced diet.

Food test for starch protein and lipids.

Explanation of malnutrition and its


Relationship between diet and certain

diseases – night blindness, high blood

4.3 Food fortification and enrichment

4.4 Health benefits of water

  1. Dentition, feeding and digestion in mammals

5.1 Structure of

different types of teeth in relation to their functions

5.2 Care of teeth in humans

5.3 Digestive system of human

  1. Transport: Diffusion, osmosis and plasmolysis.
  2. Excretory system

7.1 Excretory organs

7.2 Disorders of urinary systems in humans

pressure, diabetes, obesity, lactoseintolerance, and Kwashiorkor.

Importance of roughage.

The essence of food fortification and

enrichment. Determination of body mass index (BMI)

The importance of water to the human


Structure and functions of the teeth.

Drawing and labelling of a vertical

section of a typical tooth. Differences in

dentition in humans and other mammals in relation to diet.

Proper ways of caring for the teeth to prevent

dental problems.

Structure and functions of digestive

systems in humans.

Explanation of diffusion, osmosis, and

plasmolysis. Simple experiments to

demonstrate diffusion in air and in

liquids; osmosis in living tissue and in

non-living tissue. Examples of diffusion

and osmosis in nature.

Explanation of excretion. Distinction

between excretion and egestion.

Excretory organs ( lungs, skin, liver and

kidney). Elimination of products from

the body. Structure of the skin and the


Bed wetting, urine retention, kidney

stone prostate and their remedies.

  1. Reproductive system

and growth in


8.1 Mammalian



8.2 Male and female


8.3 Fertilization,

development of

the zygote and

birth in humans.

8.4 The process of

birth and care

for the young

8.5 Problems

associated with

reproduction in


8.6 Sexually

transmitted infections


8.7 Phases of growth and development

Structure and function of male and

female reproductive systems.

Advantages and disadvantages


The process of fertilization,

development of zygote (pregnancy) and

birth. Formation of twins: identical,

fraternal, and siamese.

Details of cell division and anatomy of

the embryo not required.

The process of birth in mammals,

including pre-natal, post-natal and

parental care.

Causes and effects of miscarriage,

ectopic pregnancy, infertility,

impotence, fibroid, disease infections

and ovarian cyst.

Types: HIV/ AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis,

candidiasis, herpes, chlamydia and their

mode of transmission. Effects of STI’s

on the health and reproduction in


Physical and behavioural changes

associated with each phase of human

development: losing milk teeth and

development of permanent teeth,

increase in mass, height, development of

secondary sexual characters, e.g.

menstruation in girls (pre-menstrual

syndrome in some women- accompanied

by violent moods or depression), wet

dreams in boys. Changes in old age

should include menopause and its

  1. The circulatory system

9.1 The structure and functions

of the circulatory system of


9.2 Composition and functions of blood

9.3 Disorders

associated with

the blood and the

blood circulatory


  1. Nervous system

10.1 Structure and

the function

of nervous


10.2 Causes and effects of damage to

the central nervous system

10.3 Voluntary and involuntary actions

10.4 Endocrine system and its


associated problems.

The flow of blood through the heart, the

lungs and the body of humans. Functions

of the heart, the veins and the arteries in

the circulatory system . Detailed structure of

cellular components of the

blood vessels not required.

The structure of blood cells. Functions

of blood and blood circulatory system.

High blood pressure, low blood

pressure and hole-in- heart, leukemia, anaemia.

Parts of the brain and their functions:

fore-brain (cerebrum), mid-brain

(cerebellum), hind-brain (medulla

oblongata). The spinal cord as part of the

central nervous system. Details of

electrical and chemical nature of

impulse transmission not required.

Accidents, diseases, drug abuse and


Distinction between voluntary and

involuntary actions. Importance of reflex

action. The reflex arc.

Glands producing hormones, normal

functions of hormones and its effects of

overproduction and underproduction.

The role of thyroxin, adrenaline,

testosterone, oestrogen and insulin.

Importance of iodated salt.

  2. Forms of energy

and energy transformation

1.1 Conservation of energy and

efficiency of energy conversion

  1. Solar energy

2.1 Uses of solar energy

2.2 Application of solar energy

  1. Photosynthesis

3.1 The process of photosynthesis

3.2 Conversion of light energy to chemical

Illustrations with flow charts to show the

following energy transformations: solar

energy to chemical in photosynthesis,

Chemical energy to electrical energy in

voltaic cells, solar energy to electrical

energy in solar cells, chemical energy in

fossil fuel into thermal energy/ electrical

energy, potential energy to kinetic

energy in falling object, electrical energy

to light energy in bulbs, chemical energy

is released from glucose during cellular


Explanation of the principle of

conservation of energy. Demonstration

of the principle of transformation by

considering the transformation of

potential energy to kinetic energy using

a falling object.

Explanation of efficiency using the expression:

E = energy output x 100%

energy input

The main applications of solar energy:

generating electricity, drying materials

and heating substances.

Practical activities to demonstrate the

application of solar energy to: dry clothes,

heat water for bathing, dry crops for

preservation, cook ( boil an egg).

Advantages of solar energy over the use

of fossil fuels as source of energy.

Conditions of photosynthesis: light,

chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water.

Experiments to show the necessity

of light, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide

for photosynthesis.

Equations to show how light energy is

trapped during the process of

photosynthesis and converted to glucose. energy

  1. Electronics

4.1 Claasification of solid materials intoconductors,

semiconductors and insulators

4.2 Behaviour of discrete electronic components

4.3 Transistor and its uses

4.4 Amplifer

  1. Electrical energy

5.1 Nature and

source of static and current electricity

5.2 Electric circuits

Test for starch in food and leaf.

Classify solid materials into conductors,

semiconductors and insulators. P-type

and N-type semiconductors. Behaviour

of P.N junction diode in a d.c and a.c

electronic circuit. Explanation of


A simple electronic circuit comprising

a.c and d.c. source, a resistor and a Light

Emitting Diode (LED) in series.

Behaviour of the LED when: the switch

is closed, switch is opened, resistor is

replaced with capacitor, capacitor is

replaced with inductor or coil.

Repetition of experiment by replacing

the d.c. source wih an a.c. source.

Observe an NPN or PNP Transistor and

identify the emitter, the base and the


The use of transistor as a switch.

Behaviourof NPN transistor in circuit

with the base at the junction of two

resisitors,its collector at the battery and

an LED connected to the emitter.

Application of transistor as an amplifier.

Explanation of the formation of lighting

based on electrostatics. Protection of

buildings and installations with lightning

arrestors. Sources of static and current

electricity. Difference between a.c and

d.c and their limitations.

Drawing of electric circuit and the

functions of each component.

Advantages and disadvantages of the

components ofcircuit in series and


5.3 Resistance(R), current (I),

potential difference (V), and power (P).

5.4 Electric power generation

5.5 Power transmission

  1. Sound energy

6.1 Sources of sound

6.2 Musical notes and noise

6.3 The human ear

  1. Light energy

7.1 Reflection and refraction of

Simple calculation of resistance, current,

potential difference using the Ohm’slaw.

Simple calculation for electric power.

Importance of power ratings and power

rationing. Efficient use of electric appliances.

Sources of electric power generation:

Hydro, thermal, nuclear, solar, wind,

tidal and biogas. Basic principles

underlying the production of electricity

e.g. relative motion between a coil and a


The gadgets and processes involved in

the transmission of power: step-up and

step-down transformers, wiring a plug,

household wiring, stabilizers, fuses and earthing.

Production of sound from different

instruments(pipes, rods or strings and

percussions). Nature of sound: velocity,

reflection and refraction. Differences in

velocity of sound in different media

(gas, liquid, solid, and vacuum).

Formation of echoes. Determination of

the velocity of sound is not required.

Classification of different sounds as

noise or musical notes (Distinction

between musical notes and noise).

Explanation of pitch, loudness and

quality of musical notes.

Identification of parts of the human ear

and description of their functions.

The importance of ear muffs.

Explanation of reflection and refraction of

light. Characteristics of images formed

WAEC Syllabus – Uploaded online by light

7.2 The mammalian eye

7.3 Dispersion of light

7.4 Primary and secondary colours

7.5 Electromagnetic spectrum

  1. Heat energy

8.1 Nature and sources of heat energy

8.2 Modes of heat transfer

8.3 Temperature

by plane mirror.

Structure and functions of the parts of

the mammalian eye. Eye defects, causes

and their correction using the

appropriate lenses.

Explanation of dispersion of light.

Formation of rainbow.

Distinction between primary (red, green,

blue) and secondary (yellow, violet,

indigo, orange) colours. Demonstration

of the behaviour of objects under

different coloured lights.

Explanation of electromagnetic

spectrum. Application of each

component in the spectrum. Calculation

and detailed treatment not required.

Explanation of why heat is a form of

energy. Sources of heat energy.

Demonstration of the rate of flow of heat

in a metal bar of different materials.

Applications of conduction, convection,

and radiation ( e.g. vacuum flask and


Definition of temperature. Concept of

thermal equilibrium between bodies.

Units: degree Celsius(oC) and kelvin(K)

in which temperature is expressed.

Fahrenheit should be mentioned. Uses

and limitations of different types of

thermometers e.g. liquid-in-glass

(alcohol and mercury), gas, resistance

thermometers. Advantages and

disadvantages of mercury and alcohol as

thermometric liquids. Clinical

thermometer. Thermostat and how it works.

The ball and ring experiment to show

8.4 Thermal expansion

8.5 Change of state of matter

  1. Nuclear energy

9.1 Radioactivity

9.2 Radioisotopes

9.3 Uses of nuclear energy

9.4 Protection from the effects of radioactivity

9.5 Nuclear waste disposal

  2. Ecosystem

1.1 Basic ecological terms

1.2 Types of ecosystem and their


that a body expands when heated.

Applications of expansion e.g.

thermostats, sagging of electric cable,

bursting of inflated hot lorry tyres.

Explanation of how heat causes change

of state of matter. Latent heat.

Distinction between latent heat of fusion

and latent heat of vaporization.

Evaporation; Application of principles

of evaporation in heat reduction e.g.

regulation of body temperature by the

skin, and cooling of water in local clay

water pots.

Causes of nuclear instability and how

they emit radiation to become stable.

Types of radiation (alpha and beta

particles, and gamma rays).

The nature, production and use of

radioisotopes: food preservation,

sterilization of equipment, treatment of

diseases, pest control and crop


Uses of nuclear energy e.g. in the

production of electricity.

Harmful effects of radioactivity and how

to protect people from the effects e.g.

atomic bombs.

Problems associated with the disposal of

nuclear waste.

Explanation of ecological terms:

ecosystem, species, population,

ecology, ecosphere and community.

Natural ecosystem: fresh water, marine,

estuarine, lake, rainforest, savanna and

1.3 Food chain and food web

  1. Atmosphere and climate change

2.1 Regions of atmosphere

2.2 Human activities and their effects on

the atmosphere

2.3 Atmospheric pollutants

2.4 Green house effect

2.5 Ozone layer desert. Artificial ecosystem:

farmland,man-made lake, roads.

Components of ecosystem: biotic/ living

(plants and animals) and abiotic/ nonliving(soil,

air, and water). Effects of the

components on each other. Ecological

factors: biotic (predation and

competition) and abiotic (climatic

factors, salinity, altitude and slope of

land) Appropriateness of instruments

used to measure abiotic factors.

Explanation of food chain and food web.

Identification of components of food

chain and food web: producers (green

plants), primary consumers

(herbivores), secondary consumers

(carnivores). Decomposers should be


Layers of the atmosphere: troposphere,

stratosphere, mesosphere, and

thermosphere. Description of the

characteristics of each layer in terms of

thickness, temperature, air quality and

composition, pressure and support

for human activities.

Effects of human activities on the

atmosphere: air transport, defence,

industrialization and agriculture.

Sources and effects of the following

major pollutants: oxides of lead,

nitrogen and sulphur; ozone, halons

(carbon and halogen compounds).

Explanation of ‘greenhouse’ and its

effect: Global warming and climate

change. Possible factors to address the

problem of global warming. Greenhouse

gases e.g. carbon (IV)oxide and


Ozone layer and how it protects living

organisms. Causes and effects of the

2.6 Acid rain

  1. Infection and diseases

3.1 Causes of Diseases

3.2 Common diseases

  1. Magnetism

4.1 Magnetic and non-magnetic materials

4.2 Magnetic field

4.3 Magnetization and demagnetization

  1. Force, motion, and pressure

5.1 Force

depletion of the ozone layer. Sources

and effects of CFCs on the ozone layer.

Identification of acidic pollutants which

cause acid rain. The effects of acid rain

on the environment (damage to

buildings, paints forests etc).

Pathogenic: bacteria, virus, fungi,

protozoa and rickettsia. Nonpathogenic:

nutritional, genetic, stress

conditions, and poor sanitation.

Modes of transmission, symptoms,

methods of prevention and control of

common diseases ( air borne, water

related, insect borne, food contaminated,

nutrition, sexually transmitted,

communicable, zoonotic diseases).

Classification of various kinds of

materials as magnetic and nonmagnetic.

Permanent and temporary

magnets. The use of magnetism the

following gadgets: telephone earpiece,

loud speakers, microphones, magnetic

compass, generation of electricity, fridge

doors, etc.

Explanation of magnetic field.

Demonstration of magnetic fields around

a bar magnet using compressor or iron fillings.

Processes of magnetization and

demagnetization. The production and

use of electromagnets. Complete

demagnetization of permanent magnet.

Explanation of the various types of

forces: frictional, viscous, gravitational,

weight, electrostatic, magnetic, upthrust,

tension and push / pull.

5.2 Archimedes Principle and law of flotation

5.3 Distance, displacement, speed,

velocity, momentum, acceleration

5.4 Stability of objects

5.5 Pressure

  1. Safety in the community

6.1 Safe use of appliances in the home

6.2 First aid methods

6.3 Hazardous substances

Explanation of the Archimedes Principle

and law of flotation. Explanation of the

following phenomena: the flight of

birds and flotation of boats.

Definition of the terms: distance,

displacement, speed, velocity,

acceleration, and momentum. Simple

calculations required

Explanation of centre of gravity.

Determination of centre of gravity of

rectangular, triangular, and irregular

shaped cardboards using the knife edge.

Types of equilibrium: stable, unstable,

neutral equilibrium. Stability based on

the following activities: Demonstration

of the three types of stability using a

cone on a flat surface. Effect of loading

a vehicle on the top carrier or on the

base carrier on the stability of the vehicle.

Definition of pressure. Effects of pressure in

solids, in liquids and in

gases (use of bicycle pump, hydraulics,

siphons and water pumps).

Proper use and handling of household

appliances to prevent accidents at home:

avoidance of overloading of electric

sockets, extreme care in using the

heating coil in metal/ plastic containers,

use of gloves. Precautionary measures

in preventing accidents in the home.

Demonstration of the following using

models: mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

method, methods of extinguishing

different fires, treatment of burns, cuts

and electric shocks.

Possible hazards that can occur in

working environment e.g. dust, fumes,

6.4 Common hazards in the community

6.5 Roles of health service organizations:

(WHO, FAO, UNICEF, Foods and

Drugs Board Ghana Health Service,

Red Cross, Red Crescent, EPA,

Ghana Standards Board, UNPFA,

Blue Cross)

  1. Variation and inheritance

7.1 Chromosomes and genes

toxic substance, corrosive substances,

fire, food contamination, harmful

radiation (X-rays), poisonous substances

from heated or frozen plastics. Effects of

hazardous substances on human body,

e.g. blindness, burns, nausea, vomiting,

and allergies.

Appraisal of the adequacy of the various

hazards, warning labels on containers

and other places. Techniques involved in

preventing fire due to electrical and

chemical causes, and bush fires.

Community hazards: diseases, pests and

parasites outbreak, insanitary conditions,

traffic problems in towns and cities,

pollution problems and waste


Functions of health organizations such

as public health and sanitation, public

health education, proper siting of refuse

dumps, provision of waste disposal

facilities, and provision of public toilets.

Factors that promote public health.

Importance of proper sanitation in

diseases control. Efficient town planning

and village planning systems, places of

garbage disposal, good clean roads and

street connections.

Chromosomes as bearers of genes/

hereditary materials and recessive and

dominant characters; genotype and

phenotype. Inheritance of a single pair

of contrasting characters e.g height

(tallness and shortness) to second filial


Simple treatment of Mendel’s first law

of inheritance. Application of the

sequence of inheritance with respect to

cloning of stem cells. DNA Test.

Heritable and non-heritablecharacteristics in human.

7.2 Variation

7.3 Sex determination and sex-linked characters

7.4 Blood groups and Rhesus factor

7.5 Sickle cell gene and Sickle cell anaemia

  1. Work and machines

8.1 Work, energy and power

8.2 Simple machines

8.3 Friction

  1. Endogenous technology

Explanation of variation. Causes and

consequences of variation: Mutation

should be mentioned as one of the

causes of variation e.g. resistance of

some organisms to drugs or chemicals,

albinism in humans.

Explanation of sex determination at

fertilization. Effects of sex preference on

family relationship. Sex- linked characters.

Types of blood groups and Rhesus factor

and their importance for marriage, blood

transfusion and paternity test.

Inheritance of blood groups and Rhesus

factor. Problems in marriage due to

incompatibility Rh-factor and how to

avoid these problems.

Inheritance of sickle cell gene.

Acquisition of sickle cell anaemia.

Management of sickle cell anaemia.

Definition of work, energy and power.

Simple calculations required.

Identification of simple machines such

as levers, pulleys, wheels, and axle and

inclined planes. Classes of levers should

be mentioned. Explanation of

mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and

efficiency of machines. Simple

calculations required.

Definition of friction, effects of friction

and methods of reducing friction.

Advantages and disadvantages offriction.

Explanation of endogenous technology.

Effects of modern technology on the

development of endogenous technolog.

9.1 Small scale industries

  1. Biotechnology

10.1 Genetic engineering

10.2 Tissue culture

Inter-dependence of science and

technology. Distinction between science

and technology. Significance of science

and technology to the development of society.

Small scale industries: raw materials and

equipment. Scientific principles

underlying the following small scale

industries: soap production, salt making,

palm oil production, bread making, and

yogurt production.

Explanation of biotechnology. Examples

of industries based on biotechnology.

Explanation of genetic engineering.

Application in medicine, agriculture, food processing.

Explanation of tissue culture.

Importance of tissue culture in agriculture


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Preparing for WAEC Examination, you need extra(lesson) classes, this is done after your main school. Why I recommence extra class,  it is noticed that at a time, some teacher cannot finish up with syllabus before the commencement of the Exam. But if a student has some other place to learn from, he or she can cover up everything before the Exam commence.

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