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This syllabus was evolved from the teaching syllabus for the Senior High School Integrated
Science issued by the Ghana Education Service in September, 2010.
Integrated Science seeks to equip the individual with the integrated body of scientific knowledge And
raise the level of scientific literacy of the individuals with comprehensive scientific skills that
enable them to function in the present technological era. Education in science also
providesopportunity for the development of positive attitudes and values.
- AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SYLLABUS
This syllabus seeks to among other things, enable students to:
(1) acquire the skill to solve basic problems within their immediate environment through
analysis and experimentation;
(2) keep a proper balance of the diversity of the living and non-living things based on their
interconnectedness and repeated patterns of change;
(3) adopt sustainable habits for managing the natural environment for humankind and
(4) use appliances and gadgets effectively with clear understanding of their basic operations
and underlying principles.
(5) explore, conserve and optimise the use of energy as an important resource for the living
(6) adopt a scientific way of life based on pragmatic observation and investigation of
(7) search for solutions to problems of life recognizing the interaction of science, technology
and other disciplines.
It is presumed that candidates taking the examination must have:
(1) carried out activities relating to rearing of at least one of the following groups of animals:
(iii) guinea pigs, rabbits
(2) paid visits to well established farms, and institutions related to agriculture,
research ormanufacturing to observe scientific work and application of science;
(3) kept practical notebooks on records of individual laboratory and field activities performed.
- SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a
composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be
answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answer four
questions within 1 hour 30 minutes for 20 marks each.
PAPER 3: Will consist of four questions on test of practical work. Candidates will be required
to answer all the questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.
- DETAILED SYLLABUS
Questions will be asked on the topics set out in the column headed “CONTENTS”. The
“NOTES” are intended to indicate the scope of the questions but they are not to be as an
exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.
NOTE: The S.I units will be used for all calculations. However multiples or submultiples
of the units may also be used.
- DIVERSITY OF MATTER
- Introduction to Integrated Science
1.1 Concept of Integrated Science
1.2 The scientific
1.3 Safety precautions
in the laboratory
Explanation of Science as an interrelated
body of knowledge. Carriers in science
Identification of the problem.
Experimentation. Data collection.
Analysis and conclusion.
Safety measures taken in the laboratory
and reasons for them.
2.1 Basic quantities, derived
quantities and their units.
2.2 Measuring instruments
2.3 Measurement of density and
- Diversity of living and non-living things
3.1 Characteristics of living things
3.2 Classification schemes of living
and non-living things.
Basic quantities and units of scientific
measurement: Length (m), Mass
(kg),Time (s), Temperature (K), Current
(A), Light intensity (cd), Amount of
substance (mol).Derived quantities and
their units: Volume (m3), Density (kgm3),
Velocity(ms-1), Force (N), Work and
Energy (J), Quantity of electricity (C),
Electric resistance (&!), Potential
difference (V), Power (W).
Identification and use of measuring
instruments such as ruler, balances, stop
watch, thermometer, measuring cylinder,
callipers, hydrometer, pipette and burette
to measure in various units. Necessity
Sources of error
Experiments to determine the density of
equal volumes of water and salt solution.
Comparison of densities of water and
salt solution. Simple experiments of
density of regular and irregular objects.
Differences between living and nonliving things
based on the life processes:
movement, nutrition, growth,
respiration, excretion, reproduction,
irritability should be considered.
Detailed treatment of the life processes
Explanation of biodiversity
Importance of classification.
Contribution of Aristotle, Linnaeus, and
Mendeleev. Treatment to include the
following levels or ranks: Living thingskingdom,
division/ phylum, class, order,
family, genus and species.
4.1 Particulate nature of matter
4.2 Elements, compound and mixtures
4.3 Ionic and covalent compounds
4.4 Atomic number, mass number,
isotopes and relative atomic mass
of given elements
4.5 Mole, molar mass and formula
4.6 Preparation of solutions
5.1 Plant and animal cells
5.2 Types of plant and animal cells
Elements- metals and non metals(1stto 20th elements in
the periodic table).
Atoms, molecules, ions, atomic structure.
Differences between elements,
compounds and mixtures.
Ionic and covalent bond formation.
Characteristic properties of ionic and
IUPAC names of common compounds.
Relative atomic masses should be
explained using the periodic table.
Carbon-12 isotope should be mentioned
as reference scale.
The mole as unit of the physical
quantity; amount of substance. Mention
should be made of Avogadro’s number.
Calculation of formula mass and molar
mass using relative atomic masses.
Calculation of amount of substance in
moles given its mass.
Preparation of standard solution of
NaOH, HCl, NaCl and sugar. Dilution of
Structure and function of plant and
animal cells. Drawing and labelling required.
Red blood cell, nerve cell, leaf
epidermal cell, sperm cell, leaf palisade
cells, lymphocyte and phagocyte.
Functions of cell organelles required.
6.1 Types, formation and
characteristics of rocks.
6.2 Weathering of rocks
- Acids, bases, and salts
7.1 Simple definition
of acids, bases, salts
7.2 Physical and
chemical properties of acids, bases and salts
7.3 Examples of chemical substances classified as acids,
bases or salts
7.4 Methods of preparation of salts
7.5 Acid-base indicators
7.6 Determination of pH of a given solutions.
- Soil conservation
8.1 Principles of soil
and water conservation
Formation of igneous, sedimentary and
metamorphic rocks and their
Physical, biological and chemical
weathering of rocks. Explanation of the
effect of hydration, hydrolysis,
carbonation and oxidation on rocks is
Definition of acids and bases in terms of
Proton transfer (Bronsted- Lowry
Properties and uses of acids, bases and
Description of laboratory preparation of
hydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia
gases. Test for hydrogen, carbon dioxide
and ammonia gases.
Simple chemical tests to classify
chemical substances as acids, bases, or
Preparation of salts using the following
methods: neutralization, precipitation,
acid + salt, and acid + metal.
Description of the colours developed by
phenolphthalein, litmus and methyl
orange in dilute acids and dilute bases.
The nature and use of the universal
indicator and pH metre. Determination
of soil pH is required.
Explanation of the concept of soil
conservation. Description of activities to
conserve soil water and maintain soil
fertility; irrigation, mulching, addition of
organic matter or crop rotation.
Macro (major) nutrients; nitrogen (N),
8.2 Classification of soil nutrients
8.3 Functions and deficiency
symptoms of nutrients
8.4 Maintenance of soil fertility
8.5 Organic and inorganic fertilizers
8.6 Depletion of soil resources
9.1 Physical and chemical properties
9.2 Hardness and softness of water.
potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium
(Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S).
Micro (minor) nutrients: boron(B),
Description of the deficiency symptoms
of the following nutrients in plants:
nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus,
mangenese and iron.
Application of organic and inorganic
manures/ fertilizers, crop rotation, cover
cropping, liming, and green manuring.
Identification and classification of
organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Methods of applying fertilizers.
Factors which lead to the depletion of
soil resources: erosion, overgrazing,
poor farming methods, dumping of nonbiodegradable
waste on land, improper
irrigation and drainage practices, surface
mining and quarrying, deforestation, and
excessive use of fertilizer.
Experiments to determine/ demonstrate:
(i) boiling point of water.
(ii) the solvent action of water on a
variety of substances.
(iii) presence of dissolved substances
(iv) polar nature of water.
Uses of water.
Advantages and disadvantages of hard
and soft water. Causes of hardness of
water (Ca++, Mg++, Fe++ ions).
Softening hard water (addition of
washing soda, ion exchange, boiling and
Steps involved in the treatment of water
9.3 Treatment of water for public
- Metals and non-metals
10.1 Classification of materials
10.2 Uses of metals, semi-metals and
- Exploitation of minerals
12.1 Process of rusting
12.2 Prevention of rusting
for public consumption.
Classification of materials into metals,
semi-metals (metalloids), and nonmetals.
Physical properties of metals, semimetals
and non-metals under
conductivity, luster, malleability,
ductility, sonority, density, melting point
and tensile strength.
Uses of the following elements: Al, Cu,
Fe, Au, C, O2, N2. Application of semimetals.
Examples of alloys and their constituent
elements (steel, bronze, brass).Uses of
alloys. Advantages of alloys in
manufacture of certain household items.
Exploitation of the following minerals in
Ghana: Bauxite, diamond, gold, crude
oil and kaolin.
Negative impact of exploitation of
minerals mentioned and how to
minimize the effect.
Conditions necessary for rusting.
Experiments to show that air and water
are necessary for rusting. Experiments to
show that salt, dilute acid, dilute base
and heat affect the rate of rusting in iron.
Methods of preventing rusting: oiling/
greasing, painting, galvanizing, tincoating,
protection and keeping the metal dry.
Effectiveness of the various methods of
preventing rusting. Items in the home
that undergo rusting.
Hydrocarbons (first four members in
- Organic and inorganic compounds
13.1 Classification of chemicals as organic
13.2 Neutralization and esterterification
- Air movement
1.1 Land and sea breeze
1.2 Types of air masses and their
1.3 Effect of moving air masses
each group), alkanols (methanol,
ethanol, propanol), alkanoic acids (first
two members), alkanoates (first two
members), fats and oils. Functional
groups, properties and uses of organic
Differences between organic and
Importance of organic chemistry in
Differences between neutralization and
esterification. Equations representing
neutralization and esterification
Sources, application and effects of
petrochemicals on the environment.
The refinery of crude oil. Uses of
petrochemical such as plastics,
Explanation of formation of land and sea
breezes. Demonstration of convectional
currents using smoke-box and heated
water with crystals of KMnO4.
Trade winds: Easterlies and Westerlies.
Description of the direction of
movement of major air masses on the
Differences between air masses and
Effect of moving air masses: spread of
pollutants and effect on climate.
Precautions against effects of storms.
Use of the future’s wheel to trace effects
of spread of pollutants by air masses
Tornados, hurricanes, typhoons should
- Nitrogen cycle
- Hydrological cycle
3.1 Distribution of earth’s water
3.2 Hydrological cycle
3.3 Sources of water contamination
3.4 Effects of water contamination
3.5 Water conservation methods
- Life cycles of pests and parasites
4.1 Types of pests and parasites
4.2 Life cycles of some pests and
parasites of human, plants and farm
Drawing and description of the nitrogen
Importance of the nitrogen cycle to
plants and animals.
Location of earth’s water (groundwater
and surface water) and how much of it is
available for human use. Percentage
distribution of water on the earth’s
surface to be mentioned.
Processes involved in the hydrological
cycle using appropriate diagrams.
Relevance of hydrological cycle to
plants and animals.
Main sources of water contamination:
domestic waste, trade waste, industrial
waste, radioactive waste, and ‘special’
waste such as waste from hospital.
Water-washed, water-based and insectbased
Household water treatment, waste water
treatment, safe water storage, modern
and traditional rainwater harvesting
Distinguish between pests and parasites.
Common pests of humans and farm
animals (cockroach, housefly, tsetsefly,
and mosquito) common endoparasites,
tapeworm, liver fluke and round worm),
common ectoparasites (tick, bed bug
louse, flea, mite). Common pests and
parasites of plants (rice and maize
weevils, mistletoe, dodder and cassytha
beetle and stem borers.
Life cycles of the following: an
endoparasite (tape worm, and guinea
worm), pest of humans [Anopheles
mosquito] malaria parasite
- Crop production
5.1 General principles of crop
5.2 Production of crops
- General principles of farm animal
6.1 Main activities involved in farm
6.2 Ruminant production
6.3 Production of non-ruminant
(Plasmodium), a crop pest (weevil).
Control methods of the pests and
parasites are required.
Selection of appropriate varieties, site
selection and land preparation, methods
of propagation and planting methods,
cultural practices, pest and disease
control, harvesting, processing, storage
Application of all crop production
mentioned in 5.1 to produce a crop,
harvest, generate new planting materials,
keep records and market. Precautions
against post harvest losses. Production
should be limited to the following crops:
vegetables (okro/lettuce/carrot); cereals
(cowpea/groundnut); root crop
(cassava); stem tuber (yam).
Selection of suitable breeds, choice of
management system, breeding systems
and care of the young, management
practices including animal health care
and feeding, finishing, processing and
marketing of produce.
Types of breeds and their characteristics,
management practices, breeding
systems, common pests and diseases and
marketing of products. Production
should be limited to cattle, goats and sheep.
Main activities outlined in 6.1 to
produce a non-ruminant farm animal.
Production limited to poultry, pigs and rabbits.
- Skeletal system
1.1 The mammalian skeleton
- Reproduction and growth in plants
2.1 Structure of flowers
2.2 Pollination and fertilization
2.5 Seeds and fruits dispersal
2.6 Seed germination
Major parts and functions of the
Axial skeleton: skull and vertebral column.
Appendicular skeleton: limbs and the limb girdles.
Types of joints.
Detailed treatment of the individual
bones not required.
Parts of a flower and variation in flower
structure. Examination of complete
flower and half flower with free parts.
Bi-sexual flower ( Flamboyant or Pride
of Barbados or Hibiscus sp.).
Uni-sexual flower with free parts ( water
melon, gourd and pawpaw).
Drawing and labelling of complete and
half flower required.
Processes of pollination and fertilization.
Adaptations of flowers for pollination
required. Formation of fruits and seeds.
Classification of fruits into dry fruits and
fleshy or succulent fruits.
Seed structure: endospermous
(monocotyledon) and nonendospermous
(dicotyledon)seeds. Functions of parts of
Structure of seeds/ fruits and how they
are adapted to their mode of dispersal.
Agents of dispersal. Explosive
mechanism in fruits of Balsam and Pride
of Barbados. Advantages and
disadvantages of seed and fruit dispersal.
The process and conditions for
Types of germination: hypogeal and
2.7 Vegetative (Asexual) reproduction in
- Respiratory system
3.1 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
3.2 Structure and functions of the
respiratory system in mammals
3.3 Inhalation and exhalation
3.4 Problems and disorders of the respiratory system
3.5 Exchange of respiratory gases in plants.
- Food and nutrition
4.1 Classes of food
and food substances
4.2 Malnutrition epigeal.
Formation of new plants from corms,
bulbs, setts, rhizomes, cuttings, stolons,
runners. Distinction between budding
and grafting. Importance of the methods
of vegetative propagation.
Explanation of respiration and how
energy is released from food substances
for living organisms. Importance of
respiration to living organisms.
Distinction between aerobic and
Identification of the respiratory organs
of the respiratory system. Functions of
the trachea, lungs, ribs, intercostal
muscles and diaphragm.
Mechanisms of inhalation and exhalation.
Lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis,
whooping cough and pneumonia.
Prevention and control of these
problems and disorders.
Description of how respiratory gases
[oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide]
taken in and out of plants. Importance of
cell (tissue) respiration. Glycolysis and
Kreb’s cycle not required.
Classes of food and food substance and
their importance: carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, vitamins, mineral salts
and water. Importance of balanced diet.
Food test for starch protein and lipids.
Explanation of malnutrition and its
Relationship between diet and certain
diseases – night blindness, high blood
4.3 Food fortification and enrichment
4.4 Health benefits of water
- Dentition, feeding and digestion in mammals
5.1 Structure of
different types of teeth in relation to their functions
5.2 Care of teeth in humans
5.3 Digestive system of human
- Transport: Diffusion, osmosis and plasmolysis.
- Excretory system
7.1 Excretory organs
7.2 Disorders of urinary systems in humans
pressure, diabetes, obesity, lactoseintolerance, and Kwashiorkor.
Importance of roughage.
The essence of food fortification and
enrichment. Determination of body mass index (BMI)
The importance of water to the human
Structure and functions of the teeth.
Drawing and labelling of a vertical
section of a typical tooth. Differences in
dentition in humans and other mammals in relation to diet.
Proper ways of caring for the teeth to prevent
Structure and functions of digestive
systems in humans.
Explanation of diffusion, osmosis, and
plasmolysis. Simple experiments to
demonstrate diffusion in air and in
liquids; osmosis in living tissue and in
non-living tissue. Examples of diffusion
and osmosis in nature.
Explanation of excretion. Distinction
between excretion and egestion.
Excretory organs ( lungs, skin, liver and
kidney). Elimination of products from
the body. Structure of the skin and the
Bed wetting, urine retention, kidney
stone prostate and their remedies.
- Reproductive system
and growth in
8.2 Male and female
the zygote and
birth in humans.
8.4 The process of
birth and care
for the young
8.7 Phases of growth and development
Structure and function of male and
female reproductive systems.
Advantages and disadvantages
The process of fertilization,
development of zygote (pregnancy) and
birth. Formation of twins: identical,
fraternal, and siamese.
Details of cell division and anatomy of
the embryo not required.
The process of birth in mammals,
including pre-natal, post-natal and
Causes and effects of miscarriage,
ectopic pregnancy, infertility,
impotence, fibroid, disease infections
and ovarian cyst.
Types: HIV/ AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis,
candidiasis, herpes, chlamydia and their
mode of transmission. Effects of STI’s
on the health and reproduction in
Physical and behavioural changes
associated with each phase of human
development: losing milk teeth and
development of permanent teeth,
increase in mass, height, development of
secondary sexual characters, e.g.
menstruation in girls (pre-menstrual
syndrome in some women- accompanied
by violent moods or depression), wet
dreams in boys. Changes in old age
should include menopause and its
- The circulatory system
9.1 The structure and functions
of the circulatory system of
9.2 Composition and functions of blood
the blood and the
- Nervous system
10.1 Structure and
10.2 Causes and effects of damage to
the central nervous system
10.3 Voluntary and involuntary actions
10.4 Endocrine system and its
The flow of blood through the heart, the
lungs and the body of humans. Functions
of the heart, the veins and the arteries in
the circulatory system . Detailed structure of
cellular components of the
blood vessels not required.
The structure of blood cells. Functions
of blood and blood circulatory system.
High blood pressure, low blood
pressure and hole-in- heart, leukemia, anaemia.
Parts of the brain and their functions:
fore-brain (cerebrum), mid-brain
(cerebellum), hind-brain (medulla
oblongata). The spinal cord as part of the
central nervous system. Details of
electrical and chemical nature of
impulse transmission not required.
Accidents, diseases, drug abuse and
Distinction between voluntary and
involuntary actions. Importance of reflex
action. The reflex arc.
Glands producing hormones, normal
functions of hormones and its effects of
overproduction and underproduction.
The role of thyroxin, adrenaline,
testosterone, oestrogen and insulin.
Importance of iodated salt.
- Forms of energy
and energy transformation
1.1 Conservation of energy and
efficiency of energy conversion
- Solar energy
2.1 Uses of solar energy
2.2 Application of solar energy
3.1 The process of photosynthesis
3.2 Conversion of light energy to chemical
Illustrations with flow charts to show the
following energy transformations: solar
energy to chemical in photosynthesis,
Chemical energy to electrical energy in
voltaic cells, solar energy to electrical
energy in solar cells, chemical energy in
fossil fuel into thermal energy/ electrical
energy, potential energy to kinetic
energy in falling object, electrical energy
to light energy in bulbs, chemical energy
is released from glucose during cellular
Explanation of the principle of
conservation of energy. Demonstration
of the principle of transformation by
considering the transformation of
potential energy to kinetic energy using
a falling object.
Explanation of efficiency using the expression:
E = energy output x 100%
The main applications of solar energy:
generating electricity, drying materials
and heating substances.
Practical activities to demonstrate the
application of solar energy to: dry clothes,
heat water for bathing, dry crops for
preservation, cook ( boil an egg).
Advantages of solar energy over the use
of fossil fuels as source of energy.
Conditions of photosynthesis: light,
chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water.
Experiments to show the necessity
of light, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide
Equations to show how light energy is
trapped during the process of
photosynthesis and converted to glucose. energy
4.1 Claasification of solid materials intoconductors,
semiconductors and insulators
4.2 Behaviour of discrete electronic components
4.3 Transistor and its uses
- Electrical energy
5.1 Nature and
source of static and current electricity
5.2 Electric circuits
Test for starch in food and leaf.
Classify solid materials into conductors,
semiconductors and insulators. P-type
and N-type semiconductors. Behaviour
of P.N junction diode in a d.c and a.c
electronic circuit. Explanation of
A simple electronic circuit comprising
a.c and d.c. source, a resistor and a Light
Emitting Diode (LED) in series.
Behaviour of the LED when: the switch
is closed, switch is opened, resistor is
replaced with capacitor, capacitor is
replaced with inductor or coil.
Repetition of experiment by replacing
the d.c. source wih an a.c. source.
Observe an NPN or PNP Transistor and
identify the emitter, the base and the
The use of transistor as a switch.
Behaviourof NPN transistor in circuit
with the base at the junction of two
resisitors,its collector at the battery and
an LED connected to the emitter.
Application of transistor as an amplifier.
Explanation of the formation of lighting
based on electrostatics. Protection of
buildings and installations with lightning
arrestors. Sources of static and current
electricity. Difference between a.c and
d.c and their limitations.
Drawing of electric circuit and the
functions of each component.
Advantages and disadvantages of the
components ofcircuit in series and
5.3 Resistance(R), current (I),
potential difference (V), and power (P).
5.4 Electric power generation
5.5 Power transmission
- Sound energy
6.1 Sources of sound
6.2 Musical notes and noise
6.3 The human ear
- Light energy
7.1 Reflection and refraction of
Simple calculation of resistance, current,
potential difference using the Ohm’slaw.
Simple calculation for electric power.
Importance of power ratings and power
rationing. Efficient use of electric appliances.
Sources of electric power generation:
Hydro, thermal, nuclear, solar, wind,
tidal and biogas. Basic principles
underlying the production of electricity
e.g. relative motion between a coil and a
The gadgets and processes involved in
the transmission of power: step-up and
step-down transformers, wiring a plug,
household wiring, stabilizers, fuses and earthing.
Production of sound from different
instruments(pipes, rods or strings and
percussions). Nature of sound: velocity,
reflection and refraction. Differences in
velocity of sound in different media
(gas, liquid, solid, and vacuum).
Formation of echoes. Determination of
the velocity of sound is not required.
Classification of different sounds as
noise or musical notes (Distinction
between musical notes and noise).
Explanation of pitch, loudness and
quality of musical notes.
Identification of parts of the human ear
and description of their functions.
The importance of ear muffs.
Explanation of reflection and refraction of
light. Characteristics of images formed
WAEC Syllabus – Uploaded online by light
7.2 The mammalian eye
7.3 Dispersion of light
7.4 Primary and secondary colours
7.5 Electromagnetic spectrum
- Heat energy
8.1 Nature and sources of heat energy
8.2 Modes of heat transfer
by plane mirror.
Structure and functions of the parts of
the mammalian eye. Eye defects, causes
and their correction using the
Explanation of dispersion of light.
Formation of rainbow.
Distinction between primary (red, green,
blue) and secondary (yellow, violet,
indigo, orange) colours. Demonstration
of the behaviour of objects under
different coloured lights.
Explanation of electromagnetic
spectrum. Application of each
component in the spectrum. Calculation
and detailed treatment not required.
Explanation of why heat is a form of
energy. Sources of heat energy.
Demonstration of the rate of flow of heat
in a metal bar of different materials.
Applications of conduction, convection,
and radiation ( e.g. vacuum flask and
Definition of temperature. Concept of
thermal equilibrium between bodies.
Units: degree Celsius(oC) and kelvin(K)
in which temperature is expressed.
Fahrenheit should be mentioned. Uses
and limitations of different types of
thermometers e.g. liquid-in-glass
(alcohol and mercury), gas, resistance
thermometers. Advantages and
disadvantages of mercury and alcohol as
thermometric liquids. Clinical
thermometer. Thermostat and how it works.
The ball and ring experiment to show
8.4 Thermal expansion
8.5 Change of state of matter
- Nuclear energy
9.3 Uses of nuclear energy
9.4 Protection from the effects of radioactivity
9.5 Nuclear waste disposal
- INTERACTIONS OF MATTER
1.1 Basic ecological terms
1.2 Types of ecosystem and their
that a body expands when heated.
Applications of expansion e.g.
thermostats, sagging of electric cable,
bursting of inflated hot lorry tyres.
Explanation of how heat causes change
of state of matter. Latent heat.
Distinction between latent heat of fusion
and latent heat of vaporization.
Evaporation; Application of principles
of evaporation in heat reduction e.g.
regulation of body temperature by the
skin, and cooling of water in local clay
Causes of nuclear instability and how
they emit radiation to become stable.
Types of radiation (alpha and beta
particles, and gamma rays).
The nature, production and use of
radioisotopes: food preservation,
sterilization of equipment, treatment of
diseases, pest control and crop
Uses of nuclear energy e.g. in the
production of electricity.
Harmful effects of radioactivity and how
to protect people from the effects e.g.
Problems associated with the disposal of
Explanation of ecological terms:
ecosystem, species, population,
ecology, ecosphere and community.
Natural ecosystem: fresh water, marine,
estuarine, lake, rainforest, savanna and
1.3 Food chain and food web
- Atmosphere and climate change
2.1 Regions of atmosphere
2.2 Human activities and their effects on
2.3 Atmospheric pollutants
2.4 Green house effect
2.5 Ozone layer desert. Artificial ecosystem:
farmland,man-made lake, roads.
Components of ecosystem: biotic/ living
(plants and animals) and abiotic/ nonliving(soil,
air, and water). Effects of the
components on each other. Ecological
factors: biotic (predation and
competition) and abiotic (climatic
factors, salinity, altitude and slope of
land) Appropriateness of instruments
used to measure abiotic factors.
Explanation of food chain and food web.
Identification of components of food
chain and food web: producers (green
plants), primary consumers
(herbivores), secondary consumers
(carnivores). Decomposers should be
Layers of the atmosphere: troposphere,
stratosphere, mesosphere, and
thermosphere. Description of the
characteristics of each layer in terms of
thickness, temperature, air quality and
composition, pressure and support
for human activities.
Effects of human activities on the
atmosphere: air transport, defence,
industrialization and agriculture.
Sources and effects of the following
major pollutants: oxides of lead,
nitrogen and sulphur; ozone, halons
(carbon and halogen compounds).
Explanation of ‘greenhouse’ and its
effect: Global warming and climate
change. Possible factors to address the
problem of global warming. Greenhouse
gases e.g. carbon (IV)oxide and
Ozone layer and how it protects living
organisms. Causes and effects of the
2.6 Acid rain
- Infection and diseases
3.1 Causes of Diseases
3.2 Common diseases
4.1 Magnetic and non-magnetic materials
4.2 Magnetic field
4.3 Magnetization and demagnetization
- Force, motion, and pressure
depletion of the ozone layer. Sources
and effects of CFCs on the ozone layer.
Identification of acidic pollutants which
cause acid rain. The effects of acid rain
on the environment (damage to
buildings, paints forests etc).
Pathogenic: bacteria, virus, fungi,
protozoa and rickettsia. Nonpathogenic:
nutritional, genetic, stress
conditions, and poor sanitation.
Modes of transmission, symptoms,
methods of prevention and control of
common diseases ( air borne, water
related, insect borne, food contaminated,
nutrition, sexually transmitted,
communicable, zoonotic diseases).
Classification of various kinds of
materials as magnetic and nonmagnetic.
Permanent and temporary
magnets. The use of magnetism the
following gadgets: telephone earpiece,
loud speakers, microphones, magnetic
compass, generation of electricity, fridge
Explanation of magnetic field.
Demonstration of magnetic fields around
a bar magnet using compressor or iron fillings.
Processes of magnetization and
demagnetization. The production and
use of electromagnets. Complete
demagnetization of permanent magnet.
Explanation of the various types of
forces: frictional, viscous, gravitational,
weight, electrostatic, magnetic, upthrust,
tension and push / pull.
5.2 Archimedes Principle and law of flotation
5.3 Distance, displacement, speed,
velocity, momentum, acceleration
5.4 Stability of objects
- Safety in the community
6.1 Safe use of appliances in the home
6.2 First aid methods
6.3 Hazardous substances
Explanation of the Archimedes Principle
and law of flotation. Explanation of the
following phenomena: the flight of
birds and flotation of boats.
Definition of the terms: distance,
displacement, speed, velocity,
acceleration, and momentum. Simple
Explanation of centre of gravity.
Determination of centre of gravity of
rectangular, triangular, and irregular
shaped cardboards using the knife edge.
Types of equilibrium: stable, unstable,
neutral equilibrium. Stability based on
the following activities: Demonstration
of the three types of stability using a
cone on a flat surface. Effect of loading
a vehicle on the top carrier or on the
base carrier on the stability of the vehicle.
Definition of pressure. Effects of pressure in
solids, in liquids and in
gases (use of bicycle pump, hydraulics,
siphons and water pumps).
Proper use and handling of household
appliances to prevent accidents at home:
avoidance of overloading of electric
sockets, extreme care in using the
heating coil in metal/ plastic containers,
use of gloves. Precautionary measures
in preventing accidents in the home.
Demonstration of the following using
models: mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
method, methods of extinguishing
different fires, treatment of burns, cuts
and electric shocks.
Possible hazards that can occur in
working environment e.g. dust, fumes,
6.4 Common hazards in the community
6.5 Roles of health service organizations:
(WHO, FAO, UNICEF, Foods and
Drugs Board Ghana Health Service,
Red Cross, Red Crescent, EPA,
Ghana Standards Board, UNPFA,
- Variation and inheritance
7.1 Chromosomes and genes
toxic substance, corrosive substances,
fire, food contamination, harmful
radiation (X-rays), poisonous substances
from heated or frozen plastics. Effects of
hazardous substances on human body,
e.g. blindness, burns, nausea, vomiting,
Appraisal of the adequacy of the various
hazards, warning labels on containers
and other places. Techniques involved in
preventing fire due to electrical and
chemical causes, and bush fires.
Community hazards: diseases, pests and
parasites outbreak, insanitary conditions,
traffic problems in towns and cities,
pollution problems and waste
Functions of health organizations such
as public health and sanitation, public
health education, proper siting of refuse
dumps, provision of waste disposal
facilities, and provision of public toilets.
Factors that promote public health.
Importance of proper sanitation in
diseases control. Efficient town planning
and village planning systems, places of
garbage disposal, good clean roads and
Chromosomes as bearers of genes/
hereditary materials and recessive and
dominant characters; genotype and
phenotype. Inheritance of a single pair
of contrasting characters e.g height
(tallness and shortness) to second filial
Simple treatment of Mendel’s first law
of inheritance. Application of the
sequence of inheritance with respect to
cloning of stem cells. DNA Test.
Heritable and non-heritablecharacteristics in human.
7.3 Sex determination and sex-linked characters
7.4 Blood groups and Rhesus factor
7.5 Sickle cell gene and Sickle cell anaemia
- Work and machines
8.1 Work, energy and power
8.2 Simple machines
- Endogenous technology
Explanation of variation. Causes and
consequences of variation: Mutation
should be mentioned as one of the
causes of variation e.g. resistance of
some organisms to drugs or chemicals,
albinism in humans.
Explanation of sex determination at
fertilization. Effects of sex preference on
family relationship. Sex- linked characters.
Types of blood groups and Rhesus factor
and their importance for marriage, blood
transfusion and paternity test.
Inheritance of blood groups and Rhesus
factor. Problems in marriage due to
incompatibility Rh-factor and how to
avoid these problems.
Inheritance of sickle cell gene.
Acquisition of sickle cell anaemia.
Management of sickle cell anaemia.
Definition of work, energy and power.
Simple calculations required.
Identification of simple machines such
as levers, pulleys, wheels, and axle and
inclined planes. Classes of levers should
be mentioned. Explanation of
mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
efficiency of machines. Simple
Definition of friction, effects of friction
and methods of reducing friction.
Advantages and disadvantages offriction.
Explanation of endogenous technology.
Effects of modern technology on the
development of endogenous technolog.
9.1 Small scale industries
10.1 Genetic engineering
10.2 Tissue culture
Inter-dependence of science and
technology. Distinction between science
and technology. Significance of science
and technology to the development of society.
Small scale industries: raw materials and
equipment. Scientific principles
underlying the following small scale
industries: soap production, salt making,
palm oil production, bread making, and
Explanation of biotechnology. Examples
of industries based on biotechnology.
Explanation of genetic engineering.
Application in medicine, agriculture, food processing.
Explanation of tissue culture.
Importance of tissue culture in agriculture
How to Pass WAEC (step by step)
Preparing for WAEC Examination, you need extra(lesson) classes, this is done after your main school. Why I recommence extra class, it is noticed that at a time, some teacher cannot finish up with syllabus before the commencement of the Exam.
But if a student has some other place to learn from, he or she can cover up everything before the Exam commence.
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