# WAEC Syllabus For Physics 2022/2023 PDF | Free Download WAEC SSCE Syllabus

WAEC Syllabus for Physics 2022/2023 PDF Download is out and available in our website. Here is the most Current WAEC Physics Syllabus today to get A1 in the upcoming Physics Exams in WAEC. The Syllabus provides the WAEC Physcis Scheme of work.

The West African Examination Council, WAEC has released the latest version of their Physics Syllabus to help candidates preparing to write the Exams. in Adidtion to the syllabus, th Area of concentration and how to pass Physics SSCE Exams is also provided here.

If you’re interested in the Syllabus, read or download your copy of new Physics WAEC Syllabus now. The contents of the WAEC Physics curriculum. The Syllabus will help candidates to know the WAEC Physics Scheme of work and the WAEC Physics area of concentration while making adequate preparation for the exams.

Below is the Syllabus for Physics examination:

SECTION A

FOR CANDIDATES IN ALL MEMBER COUNTRIES

PART I

MATTER, POSITION, MOTION AND TIME

TOPICS

NOTES

Concepts of matter
Fundamental and derived quantities and

units

(a) Fundamental quantities and units

(b) Derived quantities and unit

Position, distance and displacement.

(a) Concept of position as a location of

point – rectangular coordinates.

(b) Measurement of distance

(c) Concept of direction as a way of

locating a point – bearing

(d) Distinction between distance and

displacement

Simple structure of matter should be discussed.

The three states of matter, namely solid, liquid

and gas. Evidence of the particle nature of

matter e.g. Brownian motion experiment,

Kinetic theory of matter. Use of the theory to

explain: states of matter (solid, liquid and gas),

pressure in a gas, evaporation and boiling;

amorphous substances to be compared

(Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure

not required.)

Length, mass, and time as examples of

fundamental quantities and m, kg and s as their

respective units.

Volume, density and speed as derived quantities

and m3, kgm-3 and ms-1 as their respective units.

Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Z

axes can be mentioned.

Use of string, metre rule, vernier callipers and

micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracy

should be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance.

Use of compass and a protractor.

Graphical location and directions by axes to be

stressed.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS SYLLABUS

384

TOPICS

NOTES

Mass and weight

Distinction between mass and weight

Time

(a) Concept of time as interval

between physical events

(b) Measurement of time

Fluids at rest

(a) Volume, density and relative

density

(b) Pressure in fluids

(c) Equilibrium of bodies

(i) Archmedes’ principle

(ii) Law of flotation

Use of lever balance and chemical/beam

balance to measure mass and spring balance

to measure weight.

Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N)

as unit of weight.

The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-

timer, pendulum and stopwatch/clock.

Seconds (s) as units of time.

Experimental determination for solids and

liquids.

Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s

principle, application of principle to hydraulic

press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure

on the depth of a point below a liquid surface.

Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer,

manometer, siphon, syringes and pumps,

determination of the relative density of liquids

with U-tube and Hare’s apparatus.

Identification of the forces acting on a body

partially or completely immersed in a fluid.

Use of the principle to determine the relative

densities of solids and liquids.

Establishing the conditions for a body to float

in a fluid. Applications in hydrometer,

balloons, boats, ships, submarines etc.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

385

TOPICS

NOTES

Motion

(a) Types of motion:

Random, rectilinear, translational,

rotational, circular, orbital, spin,

oscillatory

(b) Relative motion

(c) Cause of motion

(d) Types of force:

(i) Contact force

(ii) Force Field

(e) Solid friction

(f) Friction in fluids (Viscosity)

(g) Simple ideas of circular motion

Only qualitative treatment is required.

Illustration should be given for the various

types of motion.

Numerical problems on co-linear motion may

be set.

Force as cause of motion.

Push and pull

Electric and magnetic attractions and

repulsion; gravitational pull.

Frictional force between two stationary bodies

(static) and between two bodies in relative

motion (dynamic). Coefficients of limiting

of friction e.g. in locomotion, friction belt,

reduction of efficiency, wear and tear of

machines. Methods of reducing friction. Use

of ball bearings, rollers and lubrication.

Definition and effects. Simple explanation as

extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction

and its application in lubrication should be

treated qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its

determination.

Experiments with a string tied to a stone at

one end and whirled around should be carried

out to

(i) demonstrate motion in a

vertical/horizontal circle.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

386

TOPICS

NOTES

Speed and velocity

(a) Concept of speed as change of

distance with time

(b) Concept of velocity as change of

displacement with time

(c) Uniform/non-uniform

speed/velocity

(d) Distance/displacement-time graph

Rectilinear acceleration

(a) Concept of acceleration as change

of velocity with time.

(b) Uniform/non-uniform acceleration

(c) Velocity-time graph,

(d) Equations of motion with constant

acceleration;

Gravitational acceleration as a

special case.

(ii) show the difference between angular

speed and velocity.

(iii) show centripetal force. Banking of

should be qualitatively discussed.

Metre per second (ms-1) as unit of

speed/velocity.

Ticker-timer or similar devices should be

used to determine speed/velocity. Definition

of velocity as ds/dt.

Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity

from distance/displacement-time graph and

by calculation.

Unit of acceleration as ms-2

Ticker timer or similar devices should be used

to determine acceleration. Definition of

acceleration as dv/dt.

Determination of acceleration and

displacement from velocity-time graph

Use of equations to solve numerical problems.

PHYSICS

387

TOPICS

NOTES

Scalars and vectors

(a) concept of scalars as physical

quantities with magnitude and no

direction

(b) concept of vectors as physical

quantities with both magnitude and

direction.

(c) Vector representation

(e) Resolution of vectors

(f) Resultant velocity using vector

representation.

Equilibrium of forces

(a) Principle of moments

(b) Conditions for equilibrium of rigid

bodies under the action of parallel

and non-parallel forces.

(c) Centre of gravity and stability

Simple harmonic motion

(a) Illustration, explanation and

definition of simple harmonic

motion (S.H.M.)

Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of

scalars.

Weight, displacement, velocity, and

acceleration as examples of vectors.

Use of force board to determine the resultant

of two forces

Obtain the resultant of two velocities

analytically and graphically.

Moment of force/Torque. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g.

turning of water tap,corkscrew, etc.

Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces.

Treatment should include resolution of forces into two perpendiculardirections and composition of forces.

Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces.

Should be treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable and neutral

equilibria.

Use of a loaded test-tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral sprin andbifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

(b) Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.

(c) Period, frequency and amplitude of

a body executing S.H.M.

(d) Energy of S.H.M.

(e) Forced vibration and resonance

Newton’s laws of motion:

(a) First Law:

Inertia of rest and inertia of motion

(b) Second Law:

Force, acceleration, momentum

and impulse

(c) Third Law:

Action and reaction

Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and

angular accelerations.

Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the

simple pendulum and helical spring. The

theory of the principles should be treated but

derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not

required.

Simple problems may be set on simple

harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of

simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral

spring, bililar suspension and loaded test-tube

is not required.

Distinction between inertial mass and weight

Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to

determine the acceleration of a falling body

and the relationship when the acceleratingforce is constant. Linear momentum and its conservation.

Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line.

Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocketpropulsions.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

389

PART II

ENERGY: Mechanical and Heat

TOPICS

NOTES

Energy:

(a) Forms of energy

(b) World energy resources

(c) Conservation of energy

Work, Energy and Power

(a) Concept of work as a measure of

energy transfer

(b) Connept of energy as capability to

do work

(c) Work done in a gravitational field.

(d) Types of mechanical energy

(i) Potential energy (P.E.)

(ii) Kinetic energy (K.E.)

(e) Conservation of mechanical

energy

Examples of various forms of energy should

be mentioned e.g. mechanical (potential and

kinetic), heat, chemical, electrical, light,

sound, nuclear etc.

Renewable (e.g. solar, wind, tides, hydro,

ocean waves) and non-renewable (e.g.

petroleum, coal, nuclear, Biomass). Sources

of energy should be discussed briefly.

Statement of the principle of conservation of

energy and its use in explaining energy transformations.

Unit of work as the joule (J)

Unit of energy as the joule (J) while unit of electrical consumption is kWh.

Work done in lifting a body and by fallingbodies.

Derivation of P.E. and K.E. are expected to be known.

Identification of types of energy

possessed by a body under given conditions.

Verification of the principle

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

390

TOPICS

NOTES

(f) Concept of power as time rate of

doing work.

(g) Application of mechanical energy– machines.

Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle,

gears.

Heat Energy

(a) Temperature and its measurement

(b) Effects of heat on matter e.g.

(i) Rise in temperature

(ii) Change of state

(iii) Expansion

(iv) Change of resistance

(c) Thermal expansion – Linear, area ,and volume expansivities

Unit of power as the watt (W).

The force ratio (F.R.), mechanical advantage

(M.A.), velocity ratio (V.R.) and efficiency of

each machine should be treated.

Identification of simple machines that make

up a given complicated machine e.g. bicycle.

Effects of friction on machines. Reduction of

friction in machines.

Concept of temperature as degree of hotness

or coldness of a body. Construction and

Properties of thermometric liquids. The

following thermometers should be treated:

Constant – volume gas thermometer,

resistance thermometer, thermocouple, liquid-

in-glass thermometer including maximum and

minimum thermometer and clinical

thermometer. Pyrometer should be

mentioned. Celsius and Absolute scales of

temperature. Kelvin and degree Celsius as

units of temperature.

Use of the Kinetic theory to explain effects of

heat.

Qualitative and quantitative treatment.

Consequences and applications of expansions.

Expansion in buildings and bridges,

causing sagging and in railway lines causing

buckling. Real and apparent expansion of

liquids. Anomalous expansion of water.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

391

TOPICS

NOTES

(d) Heat transfer –

Conduction, convection and

(e) The gas laws-Boyle’s law,

Charles’ law, pressure law and

general gas law

(f) Measurement of heat energy:

(i) Concept of heat capacity

(ii) Specific heat capacity

(g) Latent heat

(i) Concept of latent heat

(ii) Melting point and boilingpoint

(iii) Specific latent heat of fusionand of vaporization

Per kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.

Use of the kinetic theory to explain the modesof heat transfer.

Simple experimentalillustrations. Treatment should include the

explanation of land and sea breezes,ventilation and applications in cooling

devices. The vacuum flask.The laws should be verified using simple

apparatus. Use of the kinetic theory to

explain the laws. Simple problems may beset.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific

heat capacities of solids and liquids. Land and sea breezes related to the specific heat

capacity of water and land, Jkg-1 K-1 as unit of specific heat capacity.

Explanation and types of latent heat.

Determination of the melting point of a solid

and the boiling point of a liquid. Effects ofimpurities

and pressure on melting and

boiling points. Application in pressure

cooker.

Use of the method of mixtures and the

electrical method to determine the specific

latent heat of fusion of ice and of vaporization

of steam. Applications in refrigerators and air

conditioners.

Jkg-1 as unit of specific latent heat.

PHYSICS

392

TOPICS

NOTES

(h) Evaporation and boiling

(i) Vapour and vapour pressure

(j) Humidity, relative humidity and

dew point

(k) Humidity and the weather

Effect of temperature, humidity, surface area

and draught on evaporation to be discussed.

Explanation of vapour and vapour pressure.

Demonstration of vapour pressure using

simple experiments. Saturated vapour

pressure and its relation to boiling.

Measurement of dew point and relative humidity.

Estimation of humidity of the

atmosphere using wet and dry-bulbhygrometer.

Formation of dew, fog and rain.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

393

PART III

WAVES

TOPICS

NOTES

Production and propagation of waves

(a) Production and propagation of mechanical waves

(b) Pulsating system:

Energy transmitted with definite

speed, frequency and wavelength

(c) Waveform

(d) Mathematical relationship

connecting frequency (f),

wavelength (), period (T) and

velocity (v)

Types of waves

(a) Transverse, longitudinal and

stationary waves

(b) Mathematical representation ofwave motion.

Properties of waves:

Reflection, refraction, diffraction,

interference, superposition of progressive waves producing

standing/stationary waves.

Light waves

(a) Sources of light

Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generate

mechanical waves.

Use of ripple tank to show water waves and to

demonstrate energy propagation by waves.

Hertz (Hz) as unit of frequency.

Description and graphical representation.

Amplitude, wavelength, frequency and period.

Sound and light as wave phenomena.

v = f and T = 1. Simple problems may be set.

f

Examples to be given.

Equation y = A sin (wt+ 2  x) to be explained

Questions on phase difference will not be set.

Ripple tank should be extensively used to

demonstrate these properties with plane and

circular waves. Explanation of the properties.

Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-

luminous bodies.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

394

TOPICS

NOTES

(b) Rectilinear propagation of light

(c) Reflection of light at plane

surface: plane mirror

(d) Reflection of light at curved

surfaces: concave and convex

mirrors

(e) Refraction of light at plane

surfaces: rectangular glass prism

(block) and triangular prism.

(f) Refraction of light at curved

surfaces:

Converging and diverging lenses

Formation of shadows and eclipse. Pinhole

camera. Simple numerical problems may be set.

Regular and irregular reflection. Verification of

laws of reflection. Formation of images.

Inclined plane mirrors. Rotation of mirrors.

Applications in periscope, sextant and kaleidoscope.

Laws of reflection. Formation of images.

Characteristics of images. Use of mirror

formulae:

1 + 1 = 1 and magnification m = v to solve

u v f u

numerical problems

(Derivation of formulae is not required)

Experimental determination of the focal length

of concave mirror.

Applications in searchlight, parabolic and

Laws of refraction. Formation of images, Real

and Apparent depth. Critical angle and total

internal reflection. Lateral displacement and

angle of deviation. Use of minimum deviation

equation:

sin (A + D m) = 2

sin A/2

(Derivation of the formula is not required)

Applications: periscope, prism binoculars,

optical fibres. The mirage.

Formation of images. Use of lens formulae

1 + 1 = 1 and magnification v to solve

u v f u

numerical problems.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

395

TOPICS

NOTES

(g) Application of lenses in optical

instruments.

(h) Dispersion of white light by a

triangular glass prism.

Electromagnetic waves:

Types of radiation in electromagnetic spectrum

Sound Waves

(a) Sources of sound

(b) Transmission of sound waves

(c) Speed of sound in solid, liquid and

air

(d) Echoes and reverberation

(e) Noise and music

(f) Characteristics of sound

(Derivation of the formulae not required).

Experimental determination of the focal length

of converging lens. Power of lens in dioptres D.

Simple camera, the human eye, film projector,

simple and compound microscopes, terrestrial

and astronomical telescopes. Angular

magnification. Prism binoculars. The structure

and function of the camera and the human eye

should be compared. Defects of the human eye

and their corrections.

Production of pure spectrum of a white light.

Recombination of the components of the

spectrum. Colour of objects. Mixing coloured

lights.

Elementary description and uses of various types

violet, X-rays, gamma rays.

Experiment to show that a material medium is

required.

To be compared. Dependence of velocity of

sound on temperature and pressure to be

considered.

Use of echoes in mineral exploration, and

determination of ocean depth. Thunder and

multiple reflections in a large room as examples

of reverberation.

Pitch, loudness and quality

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

396

TOPICS

NOTES

(g) Vibration in strings

(h) Forced vibration

(i) Resonance

(ii) Harmonics and overtones

(i) Vibration of air in pipe – open and

closed pipes

The use of sonometer to demonstrate the

dependence of frequency (f) on length (l),

tension (T) and linear density (m) of string

should be treated. Use of the formula:

fo = 1 T

2l m

in solving simple numerical problems.

Applications in stringed instruments e.g. guitar,

piano, harp, violin etc.

Use of resonance boxes and sonometer to

illustrate forced vibration.

Use of overtones to explain the quality of a

musical note. Applications in percussion

instruments e.g. drum, bell, cymbals, xylophone,

etc.

Measurement of velocity of sound in air or

frequency of tuning fork using the resonance

tube. Use of the relationship v = f in solving

numerical problems. End correction is expected.

Applications in wind instruments e.g. organ,

flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet, saxophone, etc.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

397

PART IV

FIELDS

TOPICS

NOTES

Description and property of fields.

(a) Concept of fields:

Gravitational, electric and

magnetic

(b) Properties of a force field

Gravitational field

(a) Acceleration due to gravity, (g)

(b) Gravitational force between two

masses:

Newton’s law of gravitation

(c) Gravitational potential and escape

velocity.

Electric Field

(1) Electrostatics

(a) Production of electric charges

(b) Types of distribution of

charges

(c) Storage of charges

(d) Electric lines of force

Use of compass needle and iron filings to show

magnetic field lines.

g as gravitational field intensity should be

mentioned, g = F/m.

Masses include protons, electrons and planets

Universal gravitational constant (G).

Relationship between ‘G’ and ‘g’

Calculation of the escape velocity of a rocket

from the earth’s gravitational field.

Production by friction, induction and contact.

A simple electroscope should be used to detect

and compare charges on differently-shaped

bodies.

Application in light conductors.

Determination, properties and field patterns of charges.

RECOMMENDED:

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

398

TOPICS

NOTES

(e) Electric force between point

charges: Coulomb’s law

(f) Concepts of electric field,

electric field intensity

potential.

(g) Capacitance –

Definition, arrangement and

application

(2) Current electricity

(a) Production of electric current

from primary and secondary

cells

(b) Potential difference and

electric current

(c) Electric circuit

(d) Electric conduction through

materials

(e) Electric energy and power

Permittivity of a medium.

Calculation of electric field intensity and electric

potential of simple systems.

Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel –

plate capacitor. The farad (F) as unit of

capacitance. Capacitors in series and in parallel.

Energy stored in a charged capacitor. Uses of

capacitors e.g. in radio, T.V. etc.

(Derivation of formulae for capacitance is not

required)

Simple cell and its defects. Daniell cell,

Leclanché cell (wet and dry).

E.m.f. of a cell, the volt (V) as unit of e.m.f.

Ohm’s law and resistance. Verification of

Ohm’s law. The volt (V), ampere (A) and ohm

() as units of p.d., current and resistance

respectively.

Series and parallel arrangements of cells and

resistors. Lost volt and internal resistance of

batteries.

Ohmic and non ohmic conductors. Examples

should be given.

Quantitative definition of electrical energy and

power. Heating effect of electrical energy and

its application. Conversion of electrical energy

to mechanical energy e.g. electric motors.

Conversion of solar energy to electrical and heat

energies e.g. solar cells, solar heaters, etc.

## Continuation of WAEC Physics Syllabus 2022

399

TOPICS

NOTES

(f) Shunt and multiplier

(g) Resistivity and Conductivity

(h) Measurement of electric current,

potential difference, resistance,

e.m.f. and internal resistance of

a cell.

Magnetic field

(a) Properties of magnets;

Magnetic materials.

(b) Magnetization and de-

magnetization

(c) Concept of magnetic field

(d) Force on a current-carrying

conductor placed in a magnetic

field and between two parallel

current-carrying conductors

(e) Use of electromagnets

(f) Earth’s magnetic field

(g) Magnetic force on a moving

charged particle

Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

Use in conversion of a galvanometer into an

ammeter or a voltmeter.

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a

material should be treated. Simple problems may

be set.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter,

voltmeter, potentiomete1, metre bridge, and

wheatstone bridge.

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and

alloys.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison

of iron and steel as magnetic materials.

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density.

Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a

current-carrying conductor and a solenoid.

Plotting of lines of force to locate neutral points.

Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density

as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric

motor and moving-coil galvanometer.

Examples in electric, bell telephone earpiece etc.

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

Solving simple problems involving the motion of a

charged particle in a magnetic field

Identifying the directions of current, magnetic field

and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s

left-hand rule).

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

400

TOPICS

NOTES

(b) Electromagnetic induction

motor-generator effect

(c) Inductance

(d) Eddy current

(e) Power transmission and

distribution

Simple a.c. circuits

(a) Graphical representation of

e.m.f. and current in an a.c.

circuit.

(b) Peak and r.m.s. values

Applications: Generator (d.c. and a.c.), induction

coil and transformer. The principles underlying

the production of direct and alternating currents

should be treated. Equation E = Eo sinwt should

be explained.

Explanation of inductance. Henry as unit of

inductance. Energy stored in an inductor

(E = 2

1

LI2)

(Derivation of formula is not required).

A method of reducing eddy current losses should

be treated. Applications in induction furnace,

speedometer, etc.

Reduction of power losses in high-tension

transmission lines. Household wiring system

should be discussed.

Graphs of equation I =Io sin wt and

E = Eo sinwt should be treated.

Phase relationship between voltage and current

in the circuit elements; resistor, inductor and

capacitor.

401

TOPICS

NOTES

(c) Series circuit containing

resistance, inductance and

capacitance

(d) Reactance and impedance

(e) Vector diagrams

(f) Resonance in an a.c. circuit

(g) Power in an a.c. circuit

Simple calculations involving a.c. circuit.

(Derivation of formulae is not required.)

XL and Xc should be treated. Simple numerical

problems may be set.

Applications in tuning of radio and T.V. should

be discussed.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

402

PART V

ATOMIC AND NUCELAR PHYSICS

TOPICS

NOTES

Structure of the atom

(a) Models of the atom

(b) Energy quantization

(c) Photoelectric effect

(d) Thermionic emission

(e) X-rays

Structure of the nucleus

(a) Composition of the nucleus

Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and electron-cloud

(wave-mechanical) models should be discussed

qualitatively. Limitations of each model.

Quantization of angular momentum (Bohr)

Energy levels in the atom. Colour and light

frequency. Treatment should include the

following: Frank-Hertz experiment, Line spectra

from hot bodies, absorption spectra and spectra of

discharge lamps.

Explanation of photoelectric effect. Dual nature of

light. Work function and threshold frequency.

Einstein’s photoelectric equation and itsexplanation.

Applications in T.V., camera, etc.

Simple problems may be set.

Explanation and applications.

Production of X-rays and structure of X-ray tube.

Types, characteristics, properties, uses and hazardsof X-rays. Safety precautions.

Protons and neutrons. Nucleon number (A),proton number

(Z), neutron number (N) and theequation: A=Z + N to be treated. Nuclides and

their notation. Isotopes.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

403

TOPICS

NOTES

Natural and artificial

(c) Nuclear reactions –

Fusion and Fission

(a) Electron diffraction

(b) Duality of matter

(, , ) and their properties and uses. Detection

of radiations by G – M counter, photographic

plates, etc. should be mentioned. Radioactive decay,

half-life and decay constant.

Transformation of elements. Applications of

radioact,ivity in agriculture, medicine, industry,archaeology, etc.

Distinction between fusion and fission. Binding

energy, mass defect and energy equation:E = mc2

hazards and safety precautions. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions.

Simple illustration of the dual nature of light.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

SECTION B

(FOR CANDIDATES IN NIGERIA)

TOPICS

NOTES

Projectiles

Concept of projectiles as an

object thrown/released into space

Properties of waves:

Polarization

Electrical conduction through

liquids

Electrical conduction throughgases
Elastic properties of solids:

(a) Hooke’s law

(b) Young’s modulus

(c) Work done in springs andelastic strings

Structure of matter
Surface tension

The uncertainty principle

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc.

Simple problems involving range, maximum height

and time of flight may be set.

The mechanical analogue of polarization should be

demonstrated. Application of polarization inpolaroid.

Electrolytes and non-electrolytes: conduction of

charge carriers through electrolytes; voltameter,

electroplating, Faraday’s law of electrolysis –

Calibration of the ammeter.

Discharge through gases; hot cathode emission.

Application e.g. in neon signs, fluorescent tubes etc.

Qualitative treatment of Young’s modulus only.

Use of the kinetic theory of matter to explain

diffusion.

Definition and effects (capillarity, cohesion and

adhesion). Applications e.g. in umbrellas, canvas,

and in the use of grease and detergents

Explain the uncertainty principle in very general

terms with specific examples.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

SECTION C

WAEC PYSICS SYLLABUS FOR CANDIDATES IN GHANA

TOPICS

NOTES

Dimensions, measurements

and units

Engines
Heat capacity
Gases
Beats
Doppler effect
Electrical networks
Gravitational force
Magnetic fields

Dimensional analysis: Use in determining formulae and

units.

Internal combusion engines, jet engines and rockets.

Principles of operation of engines.

Use of cooling curve to determine the specific heat

capacity of a liquid and also to determine the melting

point of naphthalene.

Van der Waals’ equation for one mole of real gas.

Explanation of the phenomena of beats, beat frequency

uses of beats.

Explanation of Doppler effect of sound. Only qualitative

treatment required.

Kirchhoff’s laws. Application in electrical networks.

Potential divider.

Satellites – artificial and natural. Orbits of satellites

particularly geo-stationary orbits. Derivation of the

expression of the period of satellites.

Applications of magnetic force on a moving charged

particle e.g. in deflection of charged particles in a T.V.

and mass spectrometer.

Lorentz force in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

406

TOPICS

NOTES

Electronics

(a) Solid state materials

(b) Semi-conductor devices

Distinction between conductors, semi-conductors and

insulators in terms of conductivity and modes of

conduction. Intrinsic conduction. Valence, conduction and

forbidden energy bands, and how they affect the

conductivity of materials.

Doping of semi-conductors, p – and n – type semi- conductors.

Majority and minority carriers.

I – V characteristic of p – n junction diode.

Rectification: half and full wave rectification.

Smoothing of rectified wave forms using capacitors.

Mode of operation of p-n-p and n-p-n transistors. Simple

single stage amplifier. Integrated circuits should be

mentioned.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

WAEC Physics Syllabus For Candidates in Sierria Leone

TOPICS

NOTES

Projectiles

Concept of projectiles as

an object thrown/

released into space.

Engines
Properties of wave:

Polarization

Beats
Electrical conduction through liquids
Electrical conduction

through gases

Satellite –

Artificial and natural

Magnetic fields

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc.

Simple problems involving range, maximum height and

time of flight may be set.

Internal combustion engines, jet engines and rockets.

Principle of operation of engines.

The mechanical analogue of polarization should be demonstrated.

Application of polarization in polaroid.

Explanation of phenomenon of beats, beat frequency.

Uses of beats.

Electrolytes and non-electrolytes: conduction of

charge carriers through electrolytes; voltammeter,

Calibration of the ammeter.

Discharge through gases; hot cathode emission.

Application e.g. in neon signs, fluorescent tubes etc.

Orbits of satellites particularly geo-stationery orbits.

Derivation of the expression for the period of orbit of

satellites required.

Applications of magnetic force on a moving charged

particle e.g. in deflection of charged particles in

cathode-ray rubes.

Continue WAEC Syllabus For Physics

Topic: Elasticity

NOTES

Elastic properties of solids:

(a) Hooke’s law

(b) Young’s modulus

(c) Work done in springs and

elastic strings

Structure of matter
Surface tension
Electronics

Qualitative treatment of Young’s modulus only.

Use of the kinetic theory of matter to explain

diffusion.

Definition and effects (capillarity, cohesion and adhesion).

Applications e.g. in umbrellas, canvas, and in the use of

grease and detergents.

Distinction between conductors, semi-conductors and

insulators in terms of conductivity and modes of

conduction. Semi-conductor diode: Brief and qualitative

treatment of the theory of p-type and n-type. The p-n

junction diode and its current/voltage characteristic. The

use of a diode as a rectifier.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

PHYSICS

SECTION E

(F0R CANDIDATES IN THE GAMBIA)

TOPICS

NOTES

Projectiles

Concept of projectiles as an

object thrown/released into

space

Properties of waves:

Polarization

Electrical conduction through

liquids

Electrical conduction through

gases

Elastic properties of solids
Structure of matter
Surface tension

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc. Simple

problems involving range, maximum height and time of

flight may be set.

The mechanical analogue of polarization should be

demonstrated.

Application of polarization in polaroid.

Electrolytes and non-electrolytes: conduction of charge carriers

through electrolytes; voltameter, electroplating,

Faraday’s law of electrolysis – Calibration of the ammeter.

Discharge through gases; hot cathode emission.

Application e.g. in neon signs, fluorescent tubes etc.

Hooke’s law

Use of the kinetic theory of matter to explain diffusion.

Definition and effects. Application.

## How to Use WAEC Physics Syllabus 2022

It is important for all candidates to make effective use of the Syllabus to Pass Physics very well. Get the syllabus is just a Step while the effective usage is most important aspect.

The following are ways to pass WAEC Physics with the Syllabus:

1. Get the latest of the Physics Syllabus ready.
2. Check the general Scheme and the ones for your Country
3. Start studying beginning from the first subject.
4. Make reference to WAEC Physics past questions to know how the questions comes.
5. Always write down important points and randomly repeated Questions.
6. Cover 70  percent of the Syllabus before One months to the exams commencement.
7. Always do revision and keep testing yourself with exercises.
8. Remember! Through God all things are possible.
9. Good Luck!

If there are questions regarding the WAEC Syllabus for Physics, Feel free to leave it on the comments section below, we will get to you shortly. 